promoter, enhancer, regulatory region

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sarah90222
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promoter, enhancer, regulatory region

Post by sarah90222 » Sat Nov 21, 2009 5:59 pm

im having trouble understanding the differences between these terms please can someone exaplin it to me thanks

promoter region, enhancer region, regulatory region.

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JackBean
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Post by JackBean » Sun Nov 22, 2009 1:34 am

Well, promoter directly drives expression of some gene and is located few bases upstream. That is the place, where RNA Pol sits on DNA strand and starts transcription ;)
Enhancer region can be located anywhere (several thousends bp upstream, but also downstream, I think, in several cases it is in intron of the gene...) and works in that way, that some transcription factor binds to it's sequence and regulates expression of some gene by enhancing of RNA Pol on promoter.
In my opinion, these both belong to regulatory region.
But better, if someone else confirms ;)
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kolean
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Post by kolean » Sun Nov 22, 2009 4:54 am

Promoter is the region of DNA where the RNA polymerase binds to the DNA and can begin to transcribe the gene. Usually this is at the beginning of the gene (upstream).
The TATA box is a good example of a promoter region. It is the region that 'promotes' the transcription of mRNA/RNA.

Enhancer region is the region of DNA where certain transcription factors may bind that increases the transcription process. This is usually upstream also, but in eukaryotes it can be within the gene itself (intron), or even downstream. The proteins bind at this region to 'enhance' transcription.

Regulatory region is the region of the DNA that regulates the transcription of the gene. Whether the gene is turned/expressed, or turned off/silenced. It can be a positive regulation in which transcription factors bind to the promoter and enhancer regions and therefore turn on its expression. Or it could also could be a negative regulation in which the gene is repressed/silenced. This negative regulatory region of DNA could be in the same area as the positive one, and that it can block the transcriptional machinery at the promoter region. It also could be a region of DNA that binds a chromatin remodeling protein complex that binds up the DNA and blocks the transcriptional machinery.

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JackBean
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Post by JackBean » Sun Nov 22, 2009 7:06 am

So I was basically right :)
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kolean
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Post by kolean » Fri Nov 27, 2009 6:40 pm

I confirm: basically right. 8)

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