table of contents table of contents

Cartilage contains a variety of proteoglycans that are essential for its normal …

Home » Biology Articles » Biochemistry » The Structure and Function of Cartilage Proteoglycans » References

- The Structure and Function of Cartilage Proteoglycans

Abbaszade I, Liu RQ, Yang F, Rosenfeld SA, Ross OH, Link JR., Ellis DM, Tortorella MD, Pratta MA, Hollis JM, Wynn R, Duke JL, George HJ, Hillman MC, Murphy K, Wiswall BH, Copeland RA, Decicco CP, Bruckner R, Nagase H, Itoh Y, Newton RC, Magolda RL, Trzaskos JM (1999) Cloning and characterization of ADAMTS11, an aggrecanase from the ADAMTS family. J Biol Chem 274: 23443-23450.

Barry FP, Neame PJ, Sasse J, Pearson D (1994) Length variation in the keratan sulfate domain of mammalian aggrecan. Matrix 14: 323-328.

Barry FP, Rosenberg LC, Gaw JU, Koob TJ, Neame PJ (1995) N- and O-linked keratan sulfate on the hyaluronan binding region of aggrecan from mature and immature bovine cartilage. J Biol Chem 270: 20516-20524.

Bredrup C, Knappskog PM, Majewski J, Rodahl E, Boman H (2005) Congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea caused by a mutation in the decorin gene. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46: 420-426.

Brown GM, Huckerby TN, Bayliss MT, Nieduszynski IA (1998) Human aggrecan keratan sulfate undergoes structural changes during adolescent development. J Biol Chem 273: 26408-26414.

Buckwalter JA, Pita JC, Muller FJ, Nessler J (1994) Structural differences between two populations of articular cartilage proteoglycan aggregates. J Orthop Res 12: 144- 148.

Camenisch TD, Spicer AP, Brehm-Gibson T, Biesterfeldt J, Augustine ML, Calabro A, Kubalak S, Klewer SE, McDonald JA (2000) Disruption of hyaluronan synthase-2 abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis and hyaluronan-mediated transformation of epithelium to mesenchyme. J Clin Invest 106: 349-360.

Chakravarti S, Magnuson T, Lass JH, Jepsen KJ, LaMantia C, Carroll H (1998) Lumican regulates collagen fibril assembly: skin fragility and corneal opacity in the absence of lumican. J Cell Biol 141: 1277-1286.

Danielson KG, Fazzio A, Cohen I, Cannizzaro LA, Eichstetter I, Iozzo RV (1993) The human decorin gene: Intron-exon organization, discovery of two alternatively spliced exons in the 5' untranslated region, and mapping of the gene to chromosome 12q23. Genomics 15: 146- 160.

Danielson KG, Baribault H, Holmes DF, Graham H, Kadler KE, Iozzo RV (1997) Targeted disruption of decorin leads to abnormal collagen fibril morphology and skin fragility. J Cell Biol 136: 729-743.

Doege KJ, Sasaki M, Kimura T, Yamada Y (1991) Complete coding sequence and deduced primary structure of the human cartilage large aggregating proteoglycan, aggrecan. Human-specific repeats, and additional alternatively spliced forms. J Biol Chem 266: 894-902.

Doege KJ, Coulter SN, Meek LM, Maslen K, Wood JG (1997) A human-specific polymorphism in the coding region of the aggrecan gene – Variable number of tandem repeats produce a range of core protein sizes in the general population. J Biol Chem 272: 13974-13979.

Dudhia J, Bayliss MT, Hardingham TE (1994) Human link protein gene: Structure and transcription pattern in chondrocytes. Biochem J 303: 329-333.

Dugan TA, Yang VWC, McQuillan DJ, Höök M (2003) Decorin binds fibrinogen in a Zn2+-dependent interaction. J Biol Chem 278: 13655-13662.

Fosang AJ, Hardingham TE (1989) Isolation of the Nterminal globular protein domains from cartilage proeoglycans. Identification of G2 domain and its lack of interaction with hyaluronate and link protein. Biochem J 261: 801-809.

Fraser JRE, Laurent TC, Laurent UBG (1997) Hyaluronan: Its nature, distribution, functions and turnover. J Intern Med 242: 27-33.

Fülöp C, Walcz E, Valyon M, Glant TT (1993) Expression of alternatively spliced epidermal growth factor-like domains in aggrecans of different species. Evidence for a novel module. J Biol Chem 268: 17377- 17383.

Gleghorn L, Ramesar R, Beighton P, Wallis G (2005) A mutation in the variable repeat region of the aggrecan gene (AGC1) causes a form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia associated with severe, premature osteoarthritis. Am J Hum Genet 77: 484-490.

Götte M, Kresse H (2005) Defective glycosaminoglycan substitution of decorin in a patient with progeroid syndrome is a direct consequence of two point mutations in the galactosyltransferase I (b4GalT-7) gene. Biochem Genet 43: 65-77.

Grover J, Roughley PJ (1994) The expression of functional link protein in a baculovirus system: Analysis of mutants lacking the A, B and B’ domains. Biochem J 300: 317-324.

Grover J, Chen XN, Korenberg JR, Roughley PJ (1995) The human lumican gene – Organization, chromosomal, location, and expression in articular cartilage. J Biol Chem 270: 21942-21949.

Hascall VC (1988) Proteoglycans: the chondroitin sulfate/keratan sulfate proteoglycan of cartilage. ISI Atlas Sci Biochem 1: 189-198.

Heathfield TF, Onnerfjord P, Dahlberg L, Heinegård D (2004) Cleavage of fibromodulin in cartilage explants involves removal of the N-terminal tyrosine sulfate-rich region by proteolysis at a site that is sensitive to matrix metalloproteinase-13. J Biol Chem 279: 6286-6295.

Hedbom E, Heinegård D (1993) Binding of fibromodulin and decorin to separate sites on fibrillar collagens. J Biol Chem 268: 27307-27312.

Hocking AM, Shinomura T, McQuillan DJ (1998) Leucine-rich repeat glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. Matrix Biol 17: 1-19.

Holmes MWA, Bayliss MT, Muir H (1988) Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size. Biochem J 250: 435-441.

Horton WE, Lethbridge-Çejku M, Hochberg MC, Balakir R, Precht P, Plato CC, Tobin JD, Meek L, Doege K (1998) An association between an aggrecan polymorphic allele and bilateral hand osteoarthritis in elderly white men: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Osteoarthritis Cart 6: 245-251.

Imai K, Hiramatsu A, Fukushima D, Pierschbacher MD, Okada Y (1997) Degradation of decorin by matrix metalloproteinases: Identification of the cleavage sites, kinetic analyses and transforming growth factor-β1 release. Biochem J 322: 809-814.

Itano N, Sawai T, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Yamada Y, Imagawa M, Shinomura T, Hamaguchi M, Yoshida Y, Ohnuki Y, Miyauchi S, Spicer AP, McDonald JA, Kimata K (1999) Three isoforms of mammalian hyaluronan synthases have distinct enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem 274: 25085-25092.

Kawaguchi Y, Osada R, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, Ohmori K, Matsui H, Kimura T (1999) Association between an aggrecan gene polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration. Spine 24: 2456-2460.

Korenberg JR, Chen XN, Doege K, Grover J, Roughley PJ (1993) Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Genomics 16: 546-548.

Li H, Schwartz NB, Vertel BM (1993) cDNA cloning of chick cartilage chondroitin sulfate (aggrecan) core protein and identification of a stop codon in the aggrecan gene associated with the chondrodystrophy, nanomelia. J Biol Chem 268: 23504-23511.

Manicourt DH, Pita JC, Thonar EJM, Howell DS (1991) Proteoglycans nondissociatively extracted from different zones of canine normal articular cartilage: Variations in the sedimentation profile of aggregates with degree of physiological stress. Connect Tissue Res 26: 231- 246.

Maroudas A, Bayliss MT, Uchitel-Kaushansky N, Schneiderman R, Gilav E (1998) Aggrecan turnover in human articular cartilage: Use of aspartic acid racemization as a marker of molecular age. Arch Biochem Biophys 350: 61-71.

McBride OW, Fisher LW, Young MF (1990) Localization of PGI (biglycan, BGN) and PGII (decorin, DCN, PG-40) genes on human chromosomes Xq13-qter and 12q, respectively. Genomics 6: 219-225.

Melching LI, Roughley PJ (1990) Studies on the interaction of newly secreted proteoglycan subunits with hyaluronate in human articular cartilage. Biochim Biophys Acta 1035: 20-28.

Morgelin M, Paulsson M, Hardingham TE, Heinegård D, Engel J (1988) Cartilage proteoglycans. Assembly with hyaluronate and link protein as studied by electron microscopy. Biochem J 253: 175-185.

Mort JS, Poole AR, Roughley PJ (1983) Age-related changes in the structure of proteoglycan link proteins present in normal human articular cartilage. Biochem. J 214: 269-272.

Mort JS, Caterson B, Poole AR, Roughley PJ (1985) The origin of human cartilage proteoglycan link protein heterogeneity and fragmentation during ageing. Biochem J. 232, 805-812.

Neame PJ, Barry FP (1993) The link proteins. Experientia 49: 393-402.

Neame PJ, Choi HU, Rosenberg LC (1989) The primary structure of the core protein of the small, leucinerich proteoglycan (PG I) from bovine articular cartilage. J Biol Chem 264: 8653-8661.

Nguyen Q, Murphy G, Hughes CE, Mort JS, Roughley PJ (1993) Matrix metalloproteinases cleave at two distinct sites on human cartilage link protein. Biochem J 295: 595- 598.

Nilsson B, De Luca S, Lohmander S, Hascall VC (1982) Structures of N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides on proteoglycan monomer isolated from the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma. J Biol Chem 257: 10920- 10927.

Osborne-Lawrence SL, Sinclair AK, Hicks RC, Lacey SW, Eddy RL, Byers MG, Shows TB, Duby AD (1990) Complete amino acid sequence of human cartilage link protein (CRTL1) deduced from cDNA clones and chromosomal assignment of the gene. Genomics 8: 562- 567.

Plaas AHK, Neame PJ, Nivens CM, Reiss L (1990) Identification of the keratan sulfate attachment sites on bovine fibromodulin. J Biol Chem 265: 20634-20640.

Recklies AD, White C, Melching L, Roughley PJ (2001) Differential regulation and expression of hyaluronan synthases in human articular chondrocytes, synovial cells and osteosarcoma cells. Biochem J 354: 17- 24.

Roughley PJ, White RJ (1980) Age-related changes in the structure of the proteoglycan subunits from human articular cartilage. J Biol Chem 255: 217-224.

Roughley PJ, White RJ (1989) Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans I and II. Biochem J 262: 823-827.

Roughley PJ, Poole AR, Mort JS (1982) The heterogeneity of link proteins isolated from human articular cartilage proteoglycan aggregates. J Biol Chem 257: 11908-11914.

Roughley PJ, White RJ, Magny MC, Liu J, Pearce RH, Mort JS (1993) Non-proteoglycan forms of biglycan increase with age in human articular cartilage. Biochem J 295: 421-426.

Roughley PJ, White RJ, Cs-Szabó G, Mort JS (1996a) Changes with age in the structure of fibromodulin in human articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cart 4: 153-161.

Roughley PJ, White RJ, Mort JS (1996b) Presence of pro-forms of decorin and biglycan in human articular cartilage. Biochem J 318: 779-784.

Sandy JD, Flannery CR, Boynton RE, Neame PJ (1990) Isolation and characterization of disulfide-bonded peptides from the three globular domains of aggregating cartilage proteoglycan. J Biol Chem 265: 21108-21113.

Santer V, White RJ, Roughley PJ (1982) O-linked oligosaccharides of human articular cartilage proteoglycans. Biochim Biophys Acta 716: 277-282.

Scott IC, Imamura Y, Pappano WN, Troedel JM, Recklies AD, Roughley PJ, Greenspan DS (2000) Bone morphogenetic protein-1 processes probiglycan. J Biol Chem 275: 30504-30511.

Scott JE (1996) Proteodermatan and proteokeratan sulfate (decorin, lumican/fibromodulin) proteins are horseshoe shaped. Implications for their interactions with collagen. Biochemistry 35: 8795-8799.

Scott PG, McEwan PA, Dodd CM, Bergmann EM, Bishop PN, Bella J (2004) Crystal structure of the dimeric protein core of decorin, the archetypal small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 15633- 15638.

Spicer AP, Seldin MF, Olsen AS, Brown N, Wells DE, Doggett NA, Itano N, Kimata K, Inazawa J, McDonald JA (1997) Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics 41: 493-497.

Spicer AP, Joo A, Bowling RA (2003) A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chrondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes – The missing links. J Biol Chem 278: 21083-21091.

Superti-Furga A, Rossi A, Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R (1996) A chondrodysplasia family produced by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene: Genotype/phenotype correlations. Am J Med Genet 63: 144-147.

Svensson L, Heinegård D, Oldberg Å (1995) Decorinbinding sites for collagen type I are mainly located in leucine-rich repeats 4-5. J Biol Chem 270: 20712-20716.

Svensson L, Aszódi A, Reinholt FP, Fässler R, Heinegård D, Oldberg Å (1999) Fibromodulin-null mice have abnormal collagen fibrils, tissue organization, and altered lumican deposition in tendon. J Biol Chem 274: 9636-9647.

Svensson L, Närlid I, Oldberg Å (2000) Fibromodulin and lumican bind to the same region on collagen type I fibrils. FEBS Lett 470: 178-182.

Sztrolovics R, Chen XN, Grover J, Roughley PJ, Korenberg JR (1994) Localization of the human fibromodulin gene (FMOD) to chromosome 1q32 and completion of the cDNA sequence. Genomics 23: 715- 717.

Sztrolovics R, Alini M, Roughley PJ, Mort JS (1997) Aggrecan degradation in human intervertebral disc and articular cartilage. Biochem J 326: 235-241.

Sztrolovics R, White RJ, Poole AR, Mort JS, Roughley PJ (1999) Resistance of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans to proteolytic degradation during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism. Biochem J 339: 571-577.

Tortorella MD, Burn TC, Pratta MA, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Liu R, Rosenfeld SA, Copeland RA, Decicco CP, Wynn R, Rockwell A, Yang F, Duke JL, Solomon K, George H, Bruckner R, Nagase H, Itoh Y, Ellis DM, Ross H, Wiswall BH, Murphy K, Hillman MC, Hollis GF (1999) Purification and cloning of aggrecanase-1: A member of the ADAMTS family of proteins. Science 284: 1664-1666.

Tortorella MD, Pratta M, Liu RQ, Austin J, Ross OH, Abbaszade I, Burn T, Arner E (2000) Sites of aggrecan cleavage by recombinant human aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4). J Biol Chem 275: 18566-18573.

Valhmu WB, Palmer GD, Rivers PA, Ebara S, Cheng JF, Fischer S, Ratcliffe A (1995) Structure of the human aggrecan gene: Exon-intron organization and association with the protein domains. Biochem J 309: 535-542.

Vogel KG, Paulsson M, Heinegård D (1984) Specific inhibition of type I and type II collagen fibrillogenesis by the small proteoglycan of tendon. Biochem J 223: 587- 597.

Watanabe H, Yamada Y (1999) Mice lacking link protein develop dwarfism and craniofacial abnormalities. Nature Genet 21: 225-229.

Watanabe H, Kimata K, Line S, Strong D, Gao L, Kozak CA, Yamada Y (1994) Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) caused by a 7 bp deletion in the aggrecan gene. Nature Genet 7: 154-157.

Watanabe H, Cheung SC, Itano N, Kimata K, Yamada Y (1997) Identification of hyaluronan-binding domains of aggrecan. J Biol Chem 272: 28057-28065.

Weigel PH, Hascall VC, Tammi M (1997) Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem 272: 13997-14000.

Xu T, Bianco P, Fisher LW, Longenecker G, Smith E, Goldstein S, Bonadio J, Boskey A, Heegaard AM, Sommer B, Satomura K, Dominguez P, Zhao C, Kulkarni AB, Gehron Robey P, Young MF (1998) Targeted disruption of the biglycan gene leads to an osteoporosis-like phenotype in mice. Nature Genet 20: 78-82.

Zheng J, Luo W, Tanzer ML (1998) Aggrecan synthesis and secretion – A paradigm for molecular and cellular coordination of multiglobular protein folding and intracellular trafficking. J Biol Chem 273: 12999-13006.

rating: 4.76 from 17 votes | updated on: 17 Jan 2007 | views: 33570 |

Rate article: