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This paper assessed the reliability of this simple, freely available software package …

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- Spot the match – wildlife photo-identification using information theory

Effective approaches for the management and conservation of wildlife populations require a sound knowledge of population demographics [1]. For many species, such information is provided by studies that recognize individual animals so that their fate can be followed through time, thus allowing for the estimation of demographic rates like survival [2]. Individual recognition may be achieved either by applying an artificial mark to an animal or by using an animal's natural markings [3]. The former technique is pervasive in ecological studies addressing questions from the purely theoretical [e.g., [4]] to the highly applied [5], and it has been used on both marine and terrestrial species of vastly different sizes [e.g., [6,7]].

Applying artificial marks to wildlife can, however, alter natural behaviour and reduce individual performance [e.g., [8]]. The marking process itself may be disruptive [9] due to the necessity of handling and restraining for mark application [10]. The loss of marks over time [11] and the non-reporting of retrieved marks [12] can also compromise the estimation of demographic parameters. Additionally, there are often a host of ethical and welfare issues that can arise from the application of permanent or temporary marks [13,14].

To address some of these problems, the identification of individual animals from their natural markings has become a major tool for the study of some animal populations [15], and has been applied to an equally wide range of animals from badgers [16] to whales [17,18]. One of the more popular techniques of recording the natural markings of an animal is photo-identification as this allows storage of photos in a library for subsequent cross-matching and generation of capture-history matrices [17,19]. These libraries can be examined manually to develop a suite of individual matches [19]; however, as the number of photos in a library increases beyond a person's capacity to process the suite of candidate matches manually, the development of faster, automated techniques to compare new photographs to those previously obtained is required [20,21]. Several automated matching algorithms have been trialled with some success [e.g., [20,22-26]], but these are generally highly technical, specialized and target a particular taxon or unique morphological feature of the species in question (e.g., dorsal fin shape and markings in cetaceans). Furthermore, uncertainty in the matching algorithms themselves have never been contextualized within a multi-model inferential framework [27], and so subjective manual matching is still required to assess reliability [28].

An example taxon that lends itself well to the development and application of a generalist algorithm for photo matching is the world's largest fish – the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). This species has been the recent subject of several photo-identification studies [e.g., [19,20,29]], some of which have already provided valuable information on population size, structure [19] and demography [29] under the supported assertion that the spot and stripe patterns of animals are individually unique and temporally stable [19]. The initial assessment of the demography of one population (Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia) [19] has been complicated by the addition of many hundreds of photographs taken during analogous research programmes in other parts of Australia, Belize, USA, Philippines and Mexico [30], and elsewhere (Djibouti, Seychelles and Mozambique). Consequently, the number of photographs available has exceeded the number that can be reliably matched by eye, thereby necessitating an automated system of matching. One such system has been developed from an algorithm originally designed for stellar pattern recognition, and is currently being employed by the ECOCEAN whale shark database [20]. This system has great potential; however, the procedure for entering and matching patterns is complex, and neither the algorithm nor results are publicly available. Therefore, a simple, yet reliable algorithm accessible to the public is needed to incorporate effectively a large number of photographs from a wide range of researchers, tourist operators and private organizations. Such a software package has recently been developed and is known as Interactive Individual Identification System (I3S) [31,32].

Our aim in this paper is to assess the reliability of this simple, freely available software package that recognizes spot patterns for use in photo-identification studies of wildlife. Although we focus on whale sharks as an example system, the application of the computer package and the information-theoretic matching algorithms we develop can be applied to any marine or terrestrial species demonstrating some form of stable spot patterning (e.g., sharks, frogs, lizards, mammals, butterflies, birds, etc. – Fig. 1). We assess the reliability of this package by comparing known matches made by eye. We also determine the effect of variation in the horizontal angle of subjects (Fig. 2) in matching reliability, as well as how the number of spot pairs in matched images affects matching performance. All matching results are developed within a fully information-theoretic framework that incorporates all of the uncertainty associated with the matching algorithm, thus aiding users in providing reliability assessments to their matches and the resulting capture histories and demographic estimates. As such, we provide a novel and parsimonious method for assessing the reliability of pattern matching applicable to a wide range of naturally identifiable wildlife species.

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