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Skeletal muscle tissue
- Skeletal muscle tissue engineering

Skeletal muscles are composed of bundles of highly oriented and dense muscle fibers, each a multinucleated cell derived from myoblasts. The muscle fibers in native skeletal muscle are closely packed together in an extracellular three-dimensional matrix to form an organized tissue with high cell density and cellular orientation to generate longitudinal contraction. After muscle injuries, myofibers become necrotic and are removed by macrophages [13]. A specialized myoblast sub-population called satellite cells scattered below the basal lamina of myofibers are capable of regeneration [14]. The incidence of satellite cells in skeletal muscle is very low (1%–5%) and depends on age and musclefiber composition [15]. These cells remain in a quiescent and undifferentiated state and can enter the mitotic circle in response to specific local factors [16]. This induces proliferation and fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleated and elongated myotubes, which self-assemble to form a more organized structure, namely muscle fiber [14]. Besides satellite cells migrate and proliferate in the injured area and can form a connective tissue network (muscle fibrosis). This process is called “scar tissue formation“ and leads to a loss of functionality [16, 17].

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