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Today's land application practices are designed to effectively treat wastes, and have …


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- Interpreting Science in the Real World for Sustainable Land Application


Table 1. Notable examples of systematic research programs on soil-based treatment systems.

Example
Type of project
Western Regional Land Application Project (W-170) (Brown et al., 2003a, 2003b, 2004; Gilmour et al., 2003; O'Connor et al., 2004; Ryan et al., 2004) One of a series of regional land application projects supported by the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service and State Experiment Station directors (e.g., 5-yr study comparing the fate of metals in land-applied biosolids when applied annually vs. once in 5 yr at the same total application rate; evaluation of plateau effect).
University of Minnesota-Rosemount Experiment Station land application of biosolids studies (Clapp et al., 1994) Studies supported by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Soil Conservation Service, Metro Waste Commission of the Twin Cities, and the USEPA (e.g., long-term studies of surface applied biosolids on erodible farmland; small watershed catchment studies).
Pennsylvania's Mine Land Reclamation Program and studies by Pennsylvania State University (Sopper and Kerr, 1979; Sopper et al., 1982; Sopper, 1993) Studies initially supported as a demonstration effort by the USEPA, USDA Soil Conservation Service, Appalachian Regional Commission, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and Pennsylvania State University; later supported by the City of Philadelphia's Sludge Management Program (effectiveness of biosolids applied at 35–50 dry tons per acre in sustainable mineland reclamation).
New Mexico State University studies involving land application of irradiated biosolids (Sandia Laboratories, 1979) Studies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Beneficial Uses of Nuclear Byproducts Program and Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (effectiveness of land-applied biosolids on western rangeland).
Fulton County, Illinois, Mineland Reclamation/Prairie Project and studies undertaken by the Metro Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago and the University of Illinois (Sopper and Kerr, 1979; Sopper et al., 1982; Hinesly and Hansen, 1983) Studies undertaken by the Metro Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago and the University of Illinois (e.g., fate of contaminants and effectiveness of biosolids applied a high application rates to surface minelands).
Albuquerque, New Mexico's Rangeland Reclamation Program and studies (Dennis and Fresquez, 1989; Fresquez et al., 1990; Aguilar et al., 1994; USEPA, 1995b) Studies undertaken in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (e.g., reduction of runoff and/or erosion and reestablishment of native grasses on badly overgrazed rangeland using biosolids).
Charles Lathrop Pack Forest Field Research Site and Mountains-to-Sound Program, and studies undertaken by the College of Forest Resources at the University of Washington (Bledsoe, 1981; Cole et al., 1986; USEPA, 1995a; Henry et al., 2000) Studies undertaken by the College of Forest Resources at the University of Washington with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington State Department of Energy, USEPA, Seattle METRO, and other groups (e.g., long-term studies on forest land application of biosolids, powerline rights of way, etc.).
Merco (Sierra Blanca Ranch, TX) project and studies undertaken by Texas Tech University and the University of Texas (Texas Tech University, 1998) Studies undertaken in cooperation with Texas Tech University and the University of Texas with support from the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (e.g., rangeland response to land-applied biosolids).
National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management Project (North Carolina State University, 2004a, 2004b) Studies and white papers on a wide range of animal manure management issues.
Pennsylvania State University's Wastewater Renovation and Conservation "Living Filter" Project and studies by Pennsylvania State researchers (Kardos, 1974; Sopper and Kerr, 1979; Pennsylvania State University, 2001) Example of sustainable land treatment of municipal wastewater via spray irrigation on old fields and forestland (initiated in 1962); studies supported by the USEPA and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection covering a wide range of issues (e.g., vegetation and wildlife responses, effects on ground water quality, etc.).
Muskegon Co., Michigan's Land Treatment Project and studies by Michigan State University, University of Michigan, and USGS researchers (USEPA, 1976, 1980; Demirjian et al., 1980; Muskegon County, 2004) Example of sustainable land treatment of municipal wastewater via spray irrigation on sandy farmland (initiated in 1973); studies supported by the USEPA, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, and USGS of crop response, fate of nutrients, and downstream water quality improvement.
Lubbock, TX, Land Treatment Project and studies by Southwest Research Institute (Camann et al., 1985; Hinesly et al., 1978) Example of sustainable land treatment of municipal wastewater via spray irrigation on farmland; studies supported by the USEPA and LCC Institute of Water Research of crop response, fate of nutrients, bioaerosols, and worker health.
Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Research Project and studies by Arizona State University, University of Arizona, Sanford University, University of Colorado-Boulder, Colorado School of Mines, and 10 local wastewater authorities with SAT projects via the National Center for Sustainable Water Supply and support by the USGS and the USDA Water Conservation Laboratory (National Center for Sustainable Water Supply, 2001; Fox et al., 2001; Fox,  2002; Arizona State University, 2004)
Research project and studies supported by American Water Works Association  Research Foundation funding and Congressional earmarked funds through a  cooperative agreement with the USEPA, including studies of fate of nutrients,  pathogens, and trace organics (including estrogenic activity) during SAT.



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