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Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can …

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- Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide


L-Arg, L-Arginine; GFP, Green Fluorescent Protein; NO, Nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; L-NNA, NG- nitro-L-Arginine; NeuroD1, Neurogenic Differentiation 1; PDX-1, Pancreatic Duodenum Homeobox protein-1; MafA, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A

Competing interests

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

LM performed all of the experiments, data quantification and drafting of the manuscript. SÖ substantially contributed to the conception and design of the experiments, revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.


We thank Dr. Graeme Bell (University of Chicago) for the human insulin cDNA, Dr. Brett Spear for Hepa1-6 cell line, Dr. Bert Vogelstein for the pAdEasy adenovirus system and Drs. Howard Glauert and Job Tharappel for the primary hepatocyte isolation protocol. We also thank Drs. Qingwen Qian, Zheng-Shan Zhang and Wei Ren for the NeuroD1 and MafA adenoviruses. We thank.Vinobalan Durairaj for help with statistical analysis and the members of our laboratory for helpful discussions. This work was supported by NIH/NIDDK grants 5R21DK0644829 and 5R01DK067581 (to S.Ö.), by NIH grant P20RR020171 from the National Center for Research Resources, and by a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the American Heart Association, Ohio Valley Affiliate (to L.M.).

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