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The findings support the phase-shift hypothesis for SAD, as well as suggest …

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- The circadian basis of winter depression

In order of certainty, we conclude that (i) the prototypicalSAD patient is phase delayed, whereas a less well defined subgroupmay be phase advanced; (ii) the circadian component (at leastfor the prototypical patients) is substantial, and it is consistentwith the PSH and a hypothesized therapeutic window for optimalcircadian alignment; and (iii) the work presented here willbe useful as a template for reanalyzing extant data sets andfor implementing new studies of nonseasonal depression, as wellas other sleep and psychiatric disorders, in which a circadiancomponent might be present.

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