Table of contents
- Chemical composition of the body
- Cell structure
- Movement of molecules across cell …
- Genetic information and protein synthesis
- Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism
- Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication
- Neural Control Mechanisms
- Sensory systems
- Principles of Hormonal Control Systems
- Control of body movement
- Consciousness and behavior
- Kidneys and regulation of water …
- Digestion and Absorption of Food
- Regulation of Organic Metabolism, Growth …
- Human Reproduction
- The Human Physiology
Composed of a liquid, plasma, suspended with the cells erythrocytes (red blood cells) leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets (cell fragments). Hematocrit is the percentage of blood volume occupied by the erythrocytes.
Consists of a number of inorganic and organic substances - nutrients, metabolic wastes, hormones dissolved in water. Also contains bilirubin, - a product of hemoglobin breakdown, the proteins, albumin- synthesized by liver and the most abundant ones, globulins and fibrinogen - functioning in clotting. Plasma from which all proteins have been removed is called serum.
Carry oxygen and carbon dioxide by binding them with iron in hemoglobin. Have a high surface-to-volume ratio. Plasma membrane has surface proteins and polysaccharides that confer blood group. Reticulocytes, produced in the soft interior of bones, called bone marrow, lose their cell organelles and enter the circulation as erythrocytes. Degraded at end of their lives in liver and spleen. Iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 are important constituents.
Iron - Homeostatic control of iron balance resides in intestinal epithelium. Iron is stored in liver as ferritin. Iron released from degraded erythrocytes is carried to bone marrow by plasma protein transferrin, and incorporated into new erythrocytes.
Regulation of Erythrocyte Production - Erythrocyte production is stimulated by a hormone called erythropoietin, secreted mainly by kidneys.
Anemia- A decrease in the ability of blood to carry oxygen due to (1) a decrease in total number of erythrocytes or (2) a lower concentration of hemoglobin per erythrocyte or
(3) a combination of both.
Sickle cell anemia results in abnormal shape of hemoglobin due to a genetic mutation. Results in a blockage of capillaries.
Polycythemia is an excess of erythrocytes that results in a lower flow of blood in capillaries.
Consists of 3 types of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (have multilobed nuclei and granules) - (a) eosinophils, (b) basophils and (c) neutrophils (most abundant), monocytes and lymphocytes. All leukocytes are produced in bone marrow. Participate in body defense.
Platelets are colorless cell fragments that enter circulation when cytoplasmic portions of bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes are pinched off. Their primary function is in the blood clotting process.
Regulation of Blood Cell Production
In children, marrow of most bones produces blood cells while in adults only bones of upper body produce blood cells. All blood cells are descended from single population of bone marrow cells called pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. These cells can divide into either (1) pluripotent stem cells or (2) lymphoid stem cells that gives rise to lymphocytes or (3) myeloid stem cells that gives rise to all other types of blood cells. Division and differentiation of these cells are regulated by protein hormones and paracrine agents, collectively called hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs).
Design of Cardiovascular System
Rapid flow blood in one direction is called bulk flow, produced by pumping action of the heart. The high branching of blood vessels ensures the proximity of all cells to some capillaries. Nutrients and metabolic end products move between capillary blood and interstitial fluid by diffusion.
The heart is longitudinally divided into 2 halves: left and right, and each half contains two chambers: the upper atrium and the lower ventricle. The atrium on each side is connected to the ventricle on that side but there is no connection between the two atria or the two ventricles. Blood is pumped out of heart through one set of vessels and returns to heart via another set. Vessels carrying blood away from heart are called arteries while those carrying blood toward heart are called veins.
(through lungs for oxygenation)
(to extremities and back)
Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
Blood flows from a region of high to a region of low pressure and rate of blood flow (F) is given
Δp is the difference in pressure between two points
R is resistance to flow
R, in turn, is determined by viscosity of blood and length & radius of blood vessels.
Under most physiological conditions, changing the radius of blood vessels controls flow of blood. (i.e. vasoconstriction, vasodilation)
The heart is a muscle enclosed in a sac called pericardium. Walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle cells, called myocardium. A thin layer of cells called endothelial cells lines the inner surface. Located between the atrium and ventricle on each side are the atrioventricular (AV) valves, right AV valve is called the tricuspid valve, and the left AV valve is called the mitral valve. The valve at the opening of right ventricle into pulmonary artery is called pulmonary valve, the valve where left ventricle enters aorta is called aortic valve and these two valves are also called semilunar valves. These valves will only allow blood to flow in one direction and their opening and closing is a passive process resulting from pressure differences across the valves.
Cardiac muscle cells are striated and desmosomes and gap junctions at structures called intercalated disks join adjacent cells. Some cells do not function in contraction but they do form the conducting system, which initiates the heartbeat and spreads it throughout the heart
These muscle cells are obviously vital and they are innervated with a rich supply of sympathetic fibers that release norepinephrine and parasympathetic fibers that release acetylcholine.
Blood supply to cardiac muscle cells is supplied and drained by coronary arteries, and coronary veins, respectively. Blood being pumped through the chambers does not exchange substances with the cells of the heart muscle.
Sequence of Excitation
A group of nerve cells, called the sinoatrial (SA) node in right atrium depolarizes first. The discharge rate of the SA node determines heart rate. Depolarization quickly spreads to left atrium and the two atria contract simultaneously. The action potential then spreads to ventricles, after a small delay, through the atrioventricular (AV) node, located at base of the right atrium. The delay in the action potential allows atrial contraction to be completed before the ventricle contracts. The potential then spreads to the ventricles via the bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle) and the Purkinje fibers and both ventricles contract simultaneously. Capacity of the SA node for spontaneous, rhythmical self-excitation is a result of gradual depolarization, called the pacemaker potential, of the cells as a result of Na+ channels opening once again during the repolarization phase of the previous potential.
Electrical events in the heart can be indirectly recorded at the surface of the skin from the currents generated in the extracellular fluids. An EKG (ECG) recording should consist of 3 deflections: (1) P wave - the atrial depolarization, (2) QRS complex - the ventricular depolarization and (3) T wave - the ventricular repolarization.
The long refractory period of heart muscle cells limits re-excitation of cardiac nerve cells, thus inhibiting tetanus.
Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is divided into two phases:
(1) Systole is the phase of ventricular contraction and blood ejection. During the first part of the systole phase, the ventricles contract while all valves are still closed and therefore no blood is ejected. This period is called isovolumetric ventricular contraction. The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle is called stroke volume (SV). The amount of blood remaining after ejection is called end-systolic volume (ESV).
(2) Diastole is the phase when the ventricules relax and blood fills into the chambers. During the first part of diastole, the ventricles relax while all valves are still closed and this period is called isovolumetric ventricular relaxation. The amount of blood in ventricle at the end of diastole is called end-diastolic volume (EDV).
SV = EDV - ESV
To find the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute:
CO = HR x SV Cardiac output equals heart rate multiplied by stroke volume.
Control of Heart Rate
SA node is innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Activity in parasympathetic nerves releases Ach, which close Na+ channels and decreases the slope of pacemaker potential, causing heart rate to decrease. Activity in sympathetic nerves releases norepinephrine, which then opens Na+ channels and increases the slope of pacemaker potential, causing heart rate to increase.
Control of Stroke Volume
A more forceful contraction of the ventricle can cause a greater emptying of the ventricle, thus increasing stroke volume.
EDV & SV: Frank Starling Mechanism
The greater the EDV results in a greater stretching of ventricular muscles, thus producing a more forceful contraction. Cardiac muscle is normally not at its optimal length (lo), so additional stretching increases force of contraction. In sum, as the end systolic volume decreases, the overall stroke volume increases.
Sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine, which can increase myocardial contractility by increasing calcium infusion.
Arteries are large, elastic tubes lined at the interior by endothelial cells. Arterial walls have connective tissue and smooth muscles. During systole, contraction of ventricles ejects blood into arteries, distending the arterial walls. During diastole, the walls recoil passively and more blood is driven out. There is always some blood in the arteries to keep them semi-inflated. Maximum arterial pressure reached during systole is called systolic pressure (SP), and minimum arterial pressure reached during diastole is called diastolic pressure (DPI) and difference between SP and DP is called pulse pressure (PP). Average pressure driving blood into tissues is called mean arterial pressure (MAP).
Contain smooth muscles, which can relax to increase vessel radios (vasodilation) or contract to decrease vessel radius (vasoconstriction), and control blood flow through an organ, can be calculated with:
Forgan = MAP / Resistanceorgan
Local controls are mechanisms independent of hormones and nerves. Hyperemia occurs when blood flow in an organ increases by arteriolar dilation in response to an increase in metabolic activity that causes local changes such as decrease in O2, increase in CO2 and H+.
Sympathetic nerves provide a rich supply of impulses to arterioles. Release norepinephrine and cause vasoconstriction
Hormones such as vasopressin (from posterior pituitary) and angiotension II (from liver) constrict arterioles.
Capillaries permeate every tissue in the body to provide front line access to cells in order to exchange nutrients and metabolic end products.
Anatomy of the Capillary Network
A capillary is a thin walled tube of endothelial cells one layer thick resting on a basement membrane without any surrounding muscle or elastic tissue. The endothelial cells are separated from each other by narrow, water-filled spaces called intercellular clefts.
Velocity of Capillary Blood Flow
Blood velocity decreases as blood passes through the huge cross sectional area of a capillary.
Diffusion and Exchange across Capillary Wall
There are three basic mechanisms by which substances move across capillary walls to enter or leave the interstitial fluid:
(1) Diffusion is the only important means by which net movement of nutrients, oxygen and metabolic end products can occur. Intercellular clefts allow the passage of polar molecules. Brain capillaries, however, are tight with no intercellular clefts. Liver capillaries are leaky with large clefts for movement of substances. The transcapillary diffusion gradient is setup by utilization or production of a substance.
(2) Vesicle transport allows for the passage of molecules via endo- and exocytosis.
(3) Bulk flow enables protein-free plasma to move from capillaries to the interstitial fluid due to hydrostatic pressure. This is opposed by an osmotic force, resulting from differences in protein concentration that tends to move interstitial fluid into the capillaries. Bulk flow also serves to function in distributing extracellular fluid.
The net filtration pressure (NFP) can be calculated by:
NFP = Pc – PIF – πP + πIF
Pc = capillary hydrostatic pressure (favoring fluid movement out of capillary)
PIF = interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (favoring fluid movement into capillary)
πP = the osmotic force due to plasma protein concentration (favoring fluid movement into capillary)
πIF = the osmotic force due to interstitial fluid protein concentration (favoring fluid movement out of capillary)
These four factors are called Starling forces.
Veins are thin walled, low resistance vessels that carry blood from the tissues to the heart.
Determinants of Venous Pressure
Total blood volume is the important determinant of venous pressure. At any given time, most of the blood is in veins. Walls of veins are more elastic and thus can accommodate large volumes of blood with relatively small increase in pressure. The walls contain smooth muscle innervated by sympathetic neurons which release norepinephrine and constricts vessels which increases pressure and drives more blood.
During skeletal muscle contraction, veins in the muscle are compressed, which reduces their diameter and increases pressure. This is called skeletal muscle pump. When the diaphragm descends during inspiration, there is an increased pressure in intraabdominal veins and a decreased pressure in intrathoracic veins, increasing venous pressure. This is called the respiratory pump. Venous valves prevent backflow of blood in veins.
The lymphatic system is a network of small organs (lymph nodes) and tubes (lymphatic vessels) through which flows lymph. Lymph is a fluid derived from interstitial fluid. Lymphatic capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Their water channels are permeable to all interstitial fluid components, including protein. Interstitial fluid enters these capillaries by bulk flow and the fluid flows through lymph nodes and ends in two lymphatic ducts that drain into subclavian veins in the lower neck. Lymphatic vessels carry interstitial fluid back to the cardiovascular system and compensates for net filtration out of blood capillaries. Additionally, the lymphatic system provides a pathway by which fat absorbed in gastrointestinal tract reaches the blood. Infections causing blockage of lymphatic system leads to accumulation of interstitial fluid, called edema.
Mechanism of Lymph Flow
Lymph is propelled by the rhythmical contractions of smooth muscle lining the walls of lymphatic vessels. The contractions are triggered by stretching of the walls when lymph enters the system. Lymphatic vessels have valves to produce a one-way flow. The vessels are innervated by sympathetic neurons and are also influenced by the skeletal muscle pump and the respiratory pump.
Regulation of Systemic Arterial Pressure
Mean arterial pressure is determined by cardiac output and total peripheral resistance (TPR). TPR is the sum of resistances to flow offered by all systemic blood vessels.
MAP = CO x TPR
Arteriolar resistance is the main determinant of TPR. Any deviation in MAP elicits homeostatic reflexes so that CO or TPR is changed to minimize the deviation.
These are the short-term regulators of MAP. Pressure receptors are present in the carotid sinus at the neck, the aortic arch (aortic arch baroreceptors), pulmonary vessels, wall of the heart and large systemic veins. Afferent neurons, the firing rate of which is positively correlated to MAP, from these receptors travel to the brainstem.
Medullary Cardiovascular Center
This is the primary integrating center for baroreceptor reflexes in the brainstem medulla oblongata. When arterial baroreceptors decrease their discharge as a result of less MAP, sympathetic outflow increases, increasing heart rate, ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction. Also elicits an increased secretion of Angiotensin II and vasopressin, which constrict arterioles.
Long term regulation of MAP is dependent upon blood volume. An increase in MAP decreases blood volume by increasing excretion of salt and water by kidneys, consequently bringing down MAP.
Hemorrhage and Other Causes of Hypotension
Hypotension is low blood pressure due to low blood volume. SV, CO, MAP decrease as a direct result of hemorrhage and arterial baroreceptor reflexes work to restore them to normal. HR and TPR increase as reflex responses due to increases in sympathetic outflow. Interstitial fluid is moved into the vascular system due to reduced capillary pressure. In the long term, fluid ingestion and kidney excretion are altered, erythropoiesis is stimulated to replace blood volume. Loss of large quantities of cell-free extracellular fluid through sweating, vomiting, diarrhea etc. also invoke similar symptoms and responses. Hypotension can cause fainting. Hypotension can be an indicator of insufficiencies of the autonomic nervous system.
Tissue or organ damage due to reduced blood flow is called shock.
(1) Hypovolemic shock is caused by a decrease in blood volume due to hemorrhage or loss of fluid
(2) Low-resistance shock is due to a decrease in TPR due to excessive release of vasodilators, as in allergy and infection
(3) Cardiogenic shock due to a decrease in CO (cardiac output), as in a heart attack.
There is a decrease in the effective circulating blood volume during transition from a horizontal to a vertical position. In a horizontal position, all blood vessels are at the same level and almost all pressure is due to cardiac output. In a vertical position, there is an additional pressure at every point, equal to weight of the blood column from the heart to that point. This results in distension of blood vessels due to pooling of blood and increased capillary filtration in lower parts of the body. Effect of gravity can be offset by contraction of skeletal muscles in the legs.
As CO increases, there is an increased blood flow to muscles and skin (to dissipate heat). CO is increased by a large increase in HR - caused by increased activity in the SA node, and a small increase in SV - caused by an increased ventricular contractility mediated by sympathetic activity. There is also an increase in EDV and the Frank Starling mechanism comes into play. Venous return is promoted by:
(1) increased activity in skeletal muscle pump
(2) increased activity in respiratory pump inspiration (due to increased depth and frequency of inspiration)
Control mechanisms for these cardiovascular changes involve feedforward regulation, active hyperemia, resetting of arterial baroreceptors.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Training
Oxygen consumption increases in proportion to magnitude of exercise until a point maximal oxygen consumption (V02max). After V02max is reached, any further increase in work can be only briefly sustained by anaerobic metabolism. V02max is limited by:
(2) ability of respiratory system's to deliver oxygen to blood
(3) ability of muscles to use oxygen.
Normally, V02max is determined by cardiac output.
Increased arterial pressure, generally due to an increased TPR resulting from reduced arteriolar radius. Renal hypertension results from increased secretion of renin, which generates angiotensin II - a vasoconstrictor. Hypertension results in an increase in muscle mass of the left ventricle (left ventricular hypertrophy) since it has to pump against an increased arterial pressure. This could decrease contractility leading to heart failure.
In heart failure, the heart fails to pump an adequate CO. In diastolic dysfunction, the wall of the ventricle has reduced compliance and has a reduced ability to fill adequately resulting in reduced EDV and therefore a reduced SV. Systolic dysfunction results from myocardial damage and results in a decrease in cardiac contractility and a lower SV. Adaptive reflexes to counter the reduced CO results in (1) fluid retention and can cause edema - one in the lung can impair gas exchange, and (2) increased TPR makes it harder for the heart to pump.
Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks
In coronary artery disease, changes in the coronary arteries cause insufficient blood flow (ischemia) to heart, resulting in damage to myocardium (myocardial infarction or heart attack). Chest pains associated with this are called angina pectoris. Ventricular fibrillation triggers abnormal impulse conduction by damaged myocardial cells resulting in uncoordinated ventricular contractions. Major cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis - a thickening of the arterial wall due to:
(1) Abnormal smooth muscle
(2) Cholesterol deposits
(3) Dense layers of connective tissue. The thickened wall reduces blood flow and also releases vasoconstrictors. Atherosclerosis of a cerebral artery can lead to localized brain damage - a stroke or reversible neurologic deficits called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Coronary thrombosis is total occlusion of a blood vessel by a blood clot.
Hemostasis - Prevention of Blood Loss
Hemostasis is the stoppage of bleeding from small vessels. Venous bleeding leads to a less rapid blood loss because veins have lower blood pressure. Accumulation of blood in a tissue as a result of bleeding is called hematoma. When a blood vessel is severed, it constricts and the opposite endothelial surfaces of the vessel sticks together to slow the outflow. It is
followed by other processes including clotting.
Formation of a Platelet Plug
Injury to a vessel exposes the underlying connective tissue collagen, and platelets bind to the collagen via an intermediary called von Willebrand factor (vWF) - a plasma protein secreted by endothelial cells and platelets. Binding of platelets to collagen triggers the release of secretions from platelets that change the shape and surface proteins of platelets (platelet activation), causing them to stick together (platelet aggregation) and creating a platelet plug. The platelet plug acts as a primary sealer. The plug does not expand away from the damaged endothelium because intact endothelium synthesize and release prostacyclin (prostaglandin 12, PGI2) that inhibits platelet aggregation.
Blood Coagulation: Clot Formation
Blood is transformed into a solid gel, called a clot or thrombus, that consists mainly of the protein fibrin. It supports and reinforces the platelet plug. Plasma protein prothrombin is converted to the enzyme thrombin, which then catalyzes the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen. Platelets are essential to clot formation since they provide the surface on which many of the reactions occur. Vitamin K is required as a precursor to produce prothrombin and other clotting factors. Plasma calcium is also required for this process.
The fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) system removes the clot after the vessel is repaired. Plasminogen activators activate a plasma proenzyme, plasminogen to the enzyme plasmin that digests fibrin to dissolve the clot.
Common Anticlotting Drugs
Aspirin, Heparin, Streptokinase
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