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DNA repair strategies – overview DNA is crucial to life. It carries the fundamental blueprint for the proper functioning of a cell. Thus, a damaged DNA could indicate trouble. A mere structural change could lead to the disruption of the genetic code crucial to the building of proteins. Without an apt and prompt DNA repair,…

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CRISPR as a gene editing tool made a prodigious leap forward in science. In 2015, it was heralded as Science’s 2015 Breakthrough of the Year.1 It stymied other impressive contenders like Ebola vaccine. It supersedes other gene-editing predecessors, such as TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) and ZFNs (zinc finger nucleases). Unlike these two, CRISPR does…

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Butterflies are flying colored wing insects that vary in color and pattern from individual to another individual. It has wings covered with overlapping rows of scales. Most of butterflies have developed mechanisms to   avoid predators making disguise coloration blending like leaf or bark of the tree. Some releases chemicals as a defense mechanism wherein butterfly…

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You probably already heard the concepts of translation in the central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma is an elucidation as to how a protein is born based on what the DNA holds. Based on it, the scheme begins at the DNA molecule being transcribed into RNA in a process called transcription, which is then…

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Getting older can be difficult – joints get stiff and the memory may become foggy. What is often not thought of as we watch our grandkids play and enjoy a nice walk are the toxins that we are constantly coming into contact with, such as asbestos. The toxin is a known carcinogen and, unfortunately, is…

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Jumping genes, also known as transposons, are gaining momentum. They are considered either as slacking junks or maleficent parasites in our genome. As such, they are largely taken for granted. However, it seems the tables have turned. There seem to be certain jumping genes that without them we would not move past our embryonic state.…

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Breast cancer is the occurrence of lumps or thickening of the surrounding tissues of the breast mostly in women. Yet it also occurs rarely in men. It leads to the changes in shape and appearance of the breast. As well as the changes of skin like peeling, scaling and crusting of the surrounding nipples. Nowadays,…

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Pancreatic cancer started at the tissue of the pancreas – an organ in the abdomen that lies behind the lower stomach.  Pancreas releases hormones that helps in maintaining the sugar level in the blood and assist in digestion. Pancreatic cancer is hardly detected at early stage and it is recorded as third deadliest cancer in…

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Summary: Sex reversal is not unusual in some animals, especially in invertebrates. As for the vertebrates, there are reptiles and fish that can have their sex reversed under certain circumstances. Sex reversal in these animals is often driven by environmental and social factors. But how about mammals and humans whose gonads are fully differentiated and…

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Eastern whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferous) is continuously declining due to habitat loss and unavailability of insects for food. Little is known about whip-poor-will migration because of their nocturnal quite habit during non-breeding season. At high latitude 80% avian species are migratory wherein factors affecting migration includes predators, anthropogenic threats and pathogens. Migratory strategies allows individual to…

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