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Have you ever wondered why a permanent tattoo seemed to last forever? A simple assumption would be is that the ink could have seeped so deep into the skin that it would not have no other way out. However, this is not the case. Studies on the biological aspect of permanent tattoo reveal that the…

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Imagine a child inside a womb with a sex yet to be decided not by the pair of sex chromosomes but by the ambient temperature – well, that is how the sex of red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) and other reptile species is determined. Whether the baby red-eared slider turtle develops into a male…

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Respiratory failure is an outcome from inadequate gas exchange wherein arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide not at normal levels. A drop of oxygen is called hypoxemia while the rise in arterial carbon dioxide is hypercapnia. Respiratory failure includes abnormal blood gases, increased of breathing and increased respiratory rate. In obstetric patients a complicated conditions occurs…

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Leptospirosis is a corkscrew shaped that is known as one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses in the world. Symptoms range from mild flu to severe multi-organ failure and fatal pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome. In which the key factors of these diseases are from stray animals, poor sanitation, rodents, heavy rainfall and flooding. Many regions have…

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Essential fatty acids, such as omega-3 and omega-6, are fatty acids that are polyunsaturated due to the multiple double bonds in their biochemical structure. As a fatty acid, they are basically a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid on one end and a methyl group on the other end. The methyl end of the chain…

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Intermittent fasting recently gained popularity as an alternative way to keep one’s weight in check. Its basic tenets, though, go against what we had been previously told – to never skip a meal, especially breakfast. We have been accustomed to eat “like a king” as soon as we wake up to prepare the body to…

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Cladosporium is a fungus that mostly found in indoor and outdoor molds. It is a species that formed in simple or branching chains and produced olive-green to brown colonies with pigmented conidia. Many of these Cladosporium species commonly found on living and dead plant materials. In which spores are dispersed by the wind that is…

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Urban environments are made from stone, concrete, bricks and glass that showcase a succession of signs, shapes and population. It is assemblage that is being categorized as safe, noisy, fun and peaceful or risky associated with law and policy. In order to build urban environments that limit negative impacts there is a need to comprehend…

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Oxytocin has long had a reputation of being the “love hormone”. It engenders social bonding, attachment, intimacy, and affection. It is the chemical that gives people that warm, fuzzy, jolly feeling when they are with someone they love or care about. Recently, though, oxytocin may gain yet another moniker as the “fear and anxiety hormone”.…

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The alphaproteobacteria have been widely cited as the closest relative– and possibly the prokaryotic ancestor — of the powerhouse of eukaryotic cell, mitochondria. A team of researchers from Uppsala University in Sweden aimed to identify its prokaryotic ancestral origin. However, their recent findings seemed to contradict this notion.1 The mitochondria may have taken an evolutionary…

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