such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Figure 1. Scheme of early mouse development depicting the relationship of early cell populations to the primary germ layers.
Figure 2. Three different protocols used for ES cell differentiation.
Figure 3. A comparison of BL-CFC development in EBs to hemangioblast development in the early mouse embryo. The EB and embryo are derived from an ES cell line in which the GFP cDNA has been targeted to the brachyury locus (Fehling et al. 2003; Huber et al. 2004). The presence of GFP in the EB and the primitive streak of the embryo is indicative of brachyury expression.
Figure 4. A model comparing the early stages of embryonic and ES/EB development. The green-colored populations in the gastrulating embryo and the day 3 EBs are indicative of brachyury expression.
Figure 5. Induction of brachyury expression by serum and activin. Cells were differentiated in the absence of factors or in the presence of 100 ng/mL of activin or 10% FCS. The EBs were analyzed at days 3, 4, and 5 of differentiation. Shaded areas represent undifferentiated ES cells and open areas the EB-derived cells.
Figure 6. A scheme of ES cell differentiation depicting the development of primitive ectoderm and the primary germ layers and the role of specific factors in these processes. The brachyury-expressing cells are shown as a hypothetical primitive streak consisting of both posterior and anterior populations. The establishment of the derivative cell types from different brachyury populations is proposed, based on findings in the mouse embryo. BMP4 is shown to function to induce posterior mesoderm and skin. A gradient of activin/nodal signaling is indicated, with low concentrations inducing more posterior populations and high concentrations inducing endoderm, indicative of the anterior primitive streak. FGF is shown to play a role in neural induction, whereas Wnt, BMP, and activin are all implicated as inhibitors of the early stages of this pathway.
Figure 7. Potential uses of ES cells in basic research and medicine. (Standard) Generation of ES cells from normal blastocysts; (SCNT) generation of ES cells from blastocyst derived from SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer).
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