such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
It is natures intention that the exact genetic information from both parents will be seen in the offspring's DNA in the the critical stages of fertilisation. However, it is possible for this genetic information to mutate, which in most cases, can result in fatal or negative consequencies in the outcome of the new ogranism.
One well known example of mutation is non-disjunction. Non-disjunction is when the spindle fibres fail to seperate during meiosis, resulting in gametes with one extra chromosome and other gametes lacking a chromosome.
If this non-disjunction occurs in chromosome 21 of a human egg cell, a condition called Down's syndrome occurs. This is because their cells possess 47 chromosomes as opposed to the normal chromosome compliment in humans of 46.
The fundamental structure of a chromosome is subject to mutation, which will most likely occur during crossing over at meiosis. There are a number of ways in which the chromosome structure can change, as indicated below, which will detrimentally change the genotype and phenotype of the organism. However, if the chromosome mutation effects an essential part of DNA, it is possible that the mutation will abort the offspring before it has the chance of being born.
The following indicates types of chromosome mutation where whole genes are moved:
As the name implies, genes of a chromosome are permanently lost as they become unattached to the centromere and are lost forever
In this mutation, the mutants genes are displayed twice on the same chromosome due to duplication of these genes. This can prove to be an advantageous mutation as no genetic information is lost or altered and new genes are gained
The next page continues looking at these chromosome mutations and mutations that happen within genes that can prove to be more harmful to the organism at hand. The following pages also investigates polyploidy in species.
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