such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Woodbury DJ, Kelly M.
Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201
Cholinergic synaptic vesicles were isolated from Torpedo californica and subjected to repeated freeze/thraw (F/T) cycles. Both vesicular (trapped) and released (free) ATP were measured after each cycle. It was found that a constant percentage of vesicular content was released during each F/T cycle. In solutions low in Ca2+ and Mg2+ and high in sucrose, 25% of the ATP is released by each F/T cycle. When synaptic vesicles are resuspended in Tornedo Ringer's (which contains less sucrose, higher Ca2+ and urea), 35-40% of the trapped ATP is released during each F/T cycle. These data contradict the hypothesis that F/T does not disrupt synaptic vesicle membranes (although F/T does disrupt cell membranes and synaptosomes). This nonrupture hypothesis was assumed by C. Solsona, C. Salto, and A. Ymbern (1991, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1095, 57-62) to calculate cytosolic ATP as 40% of total ATP. Our results indicate that cytosolic ATP is 10-15%. These results may also explain some of the discrepancies in reported values for cytosolic acetylcholine (ACh). Values of 35-50% were obtained by previous workers using the nonrupture hypothesis, and values of 8-22% in experiments that did not depend on the nonrupture hypothesis. Our results refute the nonrupture hypothesis and thus support a lower value for cytosolic ACh.
Source: Cryobiology. 1994 Jun;31(3):279-89
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