such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
The prime directive of all organisms is to reproduce and survive, which is also the case for viruses, which in most cases are considered a nuisance to humans.
Viruses possess both living and non-living characteristics. The unique characteristic that differentiates viruses from other organisms is the fact that they require other organisms to host themselves in order to survive, hence they are deemed obligate parasites.
Viruses can be spread in the following exemplar ways
Therefore viruses have many means of getting transmitted from one organism to another.
Viruses are tiny micro-organisms, and due to their size and simplicity, they are unable to replicate independently. Therefore, when a virus is situated in a host, it requires the means to reproduce before it dies out without producing more viruses.
This is done by altering the genetic make up of a cell to start coding for materials required to make more viruses. By altering the cell instructions, more viruses can be produced which in turn, can affect more cells and continue their existence as a species.
The following is a step by step guide of how an example bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) takes control of its host cell and reproduces itself.
Without a means of defence, the host that is under attack from the virus would soon die. The next page looks at how organisms defend themselves from these ruthless viruses.
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