such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
The Future of Regulatory Toxicology: Impact of the Biotechnology Revolution
James T. MacGregor 1
United States Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, Rockville, Maryland 20857
The molecular biology revolution and the advent of genomic and proteomic technologies are facilitating rapid advances in our understanding of the molecular details of cell and tissue function. These advances have the potential to transform toxicological and clinical practice, and are likely to lead to the supplementation or replacement of traditional biomarkers of cellular integrity, cell and tissue homeostasis, and morphological alterations that result from cell damage or death. New technologies that permit simultaneous monitoring of many hundreds, or thousands, of macro- and small molecules ("-omics" technologies) promise to allow functional monitoring of multiple (or perhaps all) key cellular pathways simultaneously. Elucidation of cellular responses to molecular damage, including evolutionarily conserved inducible molecular defense systems, suggests the possibility of new biomarkers based on molecular responses to functional perturbations and cellular damage. Our improved understanding of the molecular basis of various pathologies suggests that monitoring specific molecular responses may provide improved prediction of human outcomes. Responses that can be monitored directly in the human should provide "bridging biomarkers" that may eliminate much of the current uncertainty in extrapolating from laboratory models to human outcome. Another aspect of genomics is our enhanced ability to associate DNA sequence variations with biological outcomes and individual sensitivity. The human genome sequence has revealed that sequence variations are very common, and may be an important determinant of variation in biological outcomes. The impending availability of a complete human haplotype map linked to standard genetic markers greatly facilitates identification of genetic variations that convey sensitivity or resistance to chemical exposures. Genetic approaches have already linked a large number of genetic variants (polymorphisms) with human diseases and adverse reactions from exposure to drugs or toxicants, suggesting an important role in sensitivity to drugs and environmental agents, disease susceptibilities, and therapeutic responses. As these opportunities are transformed into reality, regulatory toxicological practice is likely to be shaped in the future by the combination of conventional pathology, toxicology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and computational bio-informatics—resulting in the broad application of molecular approaches to monitoring functional disturbances.
Key Words: toxicity; biomarkers; microarray; proteomics; genomics; metabonomics; polymorphism; haplotype; validation.
Toxicological Sciences 75, 236-248 (2003).
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