such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Abdul G. Khan†1,2
Study of plant roots and the diversity of soil micro biota, such as bacteria, fungi and microfauna associated with them, is important for understanding the ecological complexities between diverse plants, microbes, soil and climates and their role in phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are universal and ubiquitous rhizosphere microflora forming symbiosis with plant roots and acting as biofertilizers, bioprotactants, and biodegraders. In addition to AMF, soils also contain various antagonistic and beneficial bacteria such as root pathogens, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria including free-living and symbiotic N-fixers, and mycorrhiza helping bacteria. Their potential role in phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated soils and water is becoming evident although there is need to completely understand the ecological complexities of the plant-microbe-soil interactions and their better exploitation as consortia in remediation strategies employed for contaminated soils. These multitrophic root microbial associations deserve multi-disciplinary investigations using molecular, biochemical, and physiological techniques. Ecosystem restoration of heavy metal contaminated soils practices need to incorporate microbial biotechnology research and development. This review highlights the ecological complexity and diversity of plant-microbe-soil combinations, particularly AM and provides an overview on the recent developments in this area. It also discusses the role AMF play in phytorestoration of HM contaminated soils, i.e. mycorrhizoremediation.
Keywords: Phytoremediation, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), Mycorrhizoremediation, Mycorrhiza helping bacteria, Ecosystem restoration, Phytorestoration, Heavy metal (HM)
Source: J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006 July; 7(7): 503–514.
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