such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
In the first ecological study of its kind in the world, a Wake Forest
University Baptist Medical Center researcher has uncovered the unique
finding that groundwater and airborne manganese in North Carolina
correlates with cancer mortality at the county level.
Lead researcher John Spangler, M.D., professor of family and
community medicine at Wake Forest Baptist, found that groundwater
manganese appears to be positively associated with total cancer, colon
cancer and lung cancer death rates, while airborne manganese
concentrations appear to be inversely associated with total cancer,
breast cancer and lung cancer death rates.
"People need manganese in trace amounts, but if you get too much of
it, manganese can be dangerous," Spangler said. "It's my hope that the
impact of this study will be to spark additional interest and research.
This really just raises the concern that something may be going on and
argues for further research into these issues."
To determine whether environmental manganese is related to cancer at
the county level in North Carolina, Spangler conducted an ecological
study using data from the North Carolina State Center for Health
Statistics, North Carolina Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey,
and U.S. Census.
He found that airborne manganese was associated at the county level
with an 14 percent decrease in total cancer deaths, a 43 percent
decrease in breast cancer deaths and a 22 percent decrease in lung
cancer deaths. Additionally, Spangler found there was up to a 28 percent
increase in county-level colon cancer deaths and a 26 percent increase
in lung cancer deaths at the county level related to elevation of
manganese in groundwater as opposed to air.
"That's pretty astounding. These are the first data we know of to
document a potential relationship between environmental manganese and
population-level cancer death rates," Spangler said. "The positive
association between groundwater manganese and specific cancer mortality
rates might be a function of the high concentrations measures, while the
inverse relationship between air manganese and death rates might point
toward adequate (e.g. healthy) county-level manganese exposures."
Spangler points out that because manganese now replaces lead in
gasoline globally, the amount of manganese in the environment is
increasing and may worsen the groundwater concentration numbers in the
future. The effects of these ecological findings should be confirmed at
the individual level or in animal models, he said.
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