such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Many of the colors we see in fall are always present, but normally
they’re hidden from view, says UW-Madison Arboretum native plant
gardener Susan Carpenter.
The leaves of trees and other plants contain three main pigments:
carotene, anthocyanin, and the photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll,
which captures the sun’s energy to make food for plants. As the most
abundant pigment, chlorophyll is what gives leaves their green hue in
spring and summer.
Another chemical in leaves, auxin, controls a special band of cells
at the base of each leaf stem, called the abscission layer. During the
growing season, auxin prevents this layer from fully developing and
blocking the tiny, internal tubes that connect each leaf to the rest of
the tree’s circulatory system.
In fall, however, cooler and shorter days trigger an end to auxin
production, allowing the abscission layer to grow and cut off the
circulation of water, nutrients and sugar to the leaves. When this
happens, chlorophyll disintegrates rapidly, letting carotene shine
through as the yellow in maple, aspen and birch leaves. Anthocyanin,
meanwhile, provides the oranges and reds of maples, sumacs and oaks.
When there’s less sun, anthocyanin isn’t as chemically active and leaves
are more orange or yellow than red.
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