such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Researchers at the University of Rochester have developed a
mathematical model to predict immune responses to infection with
influenza A viruses, including novel viruses such as the emergent 2009
influenza A (H1N1). This model examines the contributions of specific
sets of immune cells in fighting influenza A virus. The model also
helps predict when during the immune response to viral infection
antiviral therapy would be most effective.
The project was conducted by investigators funded through the
Modeling Immunity for Biodefense program, a program established in 2005
by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),
part of the National Institutes of Health, to improve preparedness for
emerging and re-emerging pathogens.
When an individual is infected by a virus, a network of immune cells
becomes immediately engaged, taking up viral particles and presenting
pieces of the virus—antigens—to specialized white blood cells, thereby
initiating a virus-specific response. The responding cells include T
cells—which either directly attack and eliminate virus-infected cells
or help other immune cells fight the virus—as well as B cells, which
produce antibodies that bind and neutralize the virus.
The mathematical model developed by the research team generates
immune response scenarios reflecting multiple variables, including the
pathogenicity of the virus, numbers of responding B and T cells and
function of antigen-presenting cells, in the lungs and lymph nodes.
Their model suggests that prolonged viral infection limits the
production of T cells and inhibits antigen presentation to immune
cells. Confirming previous findings, the mathematical model predicts
that antiviral therapy is most effective in reducing the spread of the
virus when given within two days after infection.
The research team tested the accuracy of their model in mice
infected with influenza A virus. They next plan to apply the model to
human populations and continue to improve the model as more data become
In addition to the investigators in Rochester, NIAID supports three
additional laboratories across the United States as part of the
Modeling Immunity for Biodefense program. These scientists are
conducting immune modeling research with the goal of developing models
to simulate host immune responses to infections or vaccination in order
to better treat and prevent diseases affecting millions of people, such
as seasonal flu and tuberculosis.
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