"Cathy's research on fungi and their importance to
these pines at various life stages has led us to believe that we may no
longer have the necessary fungi in our soils because of the long
decline of both pines," said Cyndi Smith, conservation biologist at
Both pines are dying from a combination of an introduced
disease (white pine blister rust), mountain pine beetle, fire
suppression and a warmer climate.
Cripps' role in the project is
to identify native mycorrhizal fungi--fungi associated with plant
roots. Specifically, she is looking for mycorrhizal fungi that
associate with whitebark and limber pines. The fungi are important in
the establishment and survival of the trees.
"Mycorrhizae make the trees healthier and more able to resist disease, insects and drought," said Cripps.
Mycorrhizal fungi grow on the roots of 90 percent of plants, according to Cripps.
"Mycorrhizae extend the plants' root system and can get into places in the soil that the root system can't access," said Cripps.
take in, and share with the plant, nutrients such as phosphorous and
nitrogen. The fungi can improve drought tolerance by delivering
additional water to the trees. The trees leak sugars produced during
photosynthesis that feed the fungus.
Finding the fungi isn't
easy. While some fungi produce mushrooms, many of the species Cripps
hunts live entirely underground. She looks for small cracks in the soil
where the fungus may have pushed the soil up, or places where small
mammals have dug, attracted by the scent of the fungi's underground
Cripps hikes in dry forests a few days after a
rain. Since the fungi she is interested in associate with high
elevation trees, she must wait until mid-to-late summer when the snow
has melted from the mountains.
"It's painstaking work," said Cripps. "There is a lot of walking and searching for almost unnoticeable signs."
has surveyed mycorrhizae from Yellowstone through Waterton Lakes
National Park and into Banff, Canada, and has found related fungi
associated with these pines throughout the northern Rockies. These
mycorrhizal fungi are specific to five-needled pines, including
whitebark and limber pines.
When she finds the fungi, she
collects them in small plastic boxes to take back to her lab at MSU.
Cripps grows new fungi from the ones she collected and adds it to the
soil of whitebark pine seedlings in the greenhouse.
seedlings with fungi in their soil become greener and more robust than
the seedlings without the fungi, according to Cripps' unpublished
The next step is to determine which fungi species are most effective for larger scale use.
"It's a slow process because these seedlings grow so slowly," said Cripps.
Cripps doesn't have the luxury of taking her time on this project, regardless of the trees' growth rate.
along with other researchers and land managers involved in the Waterton
Lakes project hope to add fungi from Cripps lab to 1,500 whitebark
pines seedlings they will plant this fall over 7 to 10 acres.
"All of the sudden the interest just blossomed with this grant," said Cripps. "It will be a race to the fall."
More information about restoring whitebark pine ecosystems: http://www.whitebarkfound.org/Source : Montana State University