such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Feb. 20, 2009 — A groundbreaking study has
revealed in great detail how enzymes in the cell cooperate to make fat.
These enzymes are integrated into a single molecular complex known as
fatty acid synthase. This complex is regarded as a potential target for
developing new anti-obesity and anti-cancer drugs.
Dr. Stuart Smith, at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute,
collaborated with Drs. Edward Brignole and Francisco Asturias from The
Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif. in a study published in
the February 2009 edition of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology and featured on the cover of the journal.
"Fatty Acid Synthase is a remarkably complex structure. It contains
all of the components needed to convert carbohydrates into fat," Dr.
Smith explained. "We have suspected for some time that the enzyme
complex is extremely flexible, which makes it difficult to analyze
using X-ray crystallography. Last year the X-ray structure of the
complex was solved by a group in Switzerland, but this structure
provided only a snapshot of the complex in one of its many poses. We
were able to use state-of-the-art electron microscopy to obtain images
of the complex in many of its different conformations and assemble
these images into a movie that displays the full range of motion of the
components of the complex." The results reveal how enzymes that appear
distantly located in the X-ray structure are able to make the contacts
with each other needed for catalysis. The extraordinary swinging,
swiveling and rolling motions of fatty acid synthase are represented on
the cover of the journal in the form of a flamenco dancer.
Some pharmaceutical companies are focusing on inhibitors of fatty
acid synthase because they are known to block the conversion of
carbohydrates into fat and suppress appetite as well as slow the growth
of cancer cells. Structural information garnered from X-ray and
electron microscope images may aid in the design of more effective
inhibitors that could be used therapeutically.
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