such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Researchers from the UC Davis Sports Medicine Program and Nutrition
Department are using competitive endurance athletes in a study that
will compare the effectiveness of three different forms of carbohydrate
supplementation -- including jelly beans (sports beans) -- versus plain
water in improving athletic performance and warding off fatigue after
The researchers have recruited 16 competitive endurance cyclists and
triathletes to examine the effects of the carbohydrate supplements. In
addition to the jelly beans, the supplements to be studied are sports
drinks and gels.
Although a variety of factors contribute to fatigue during prolonged
exercise, it is believed that low blood glucose levels can play a role.
The ability to exercise for long periods of time also depends on the
ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver fuel and oxygen to the
exercising muscle and the ability of the metabolic machinery to convert
fuel sources into energy. When exercise continues for longer than one
hour, the amount of stored carbohydrate in the muscle and liver begins
to deplete and blood glucose levels drop. Carbohydrate supplementation
provides an additional fuel source to sustain activity and preserves
the limited carbohydrate stores in the muscles.
Among the carbohydrate supplements available to athletes, drinks and
gels are used more often during races because they are easier to digest
than energy bars. Previous research has shown that carbohydrate
ingestion via sports drinks during exercise can improve endurance by
maintaining blood glucose levels. However, the benefits of carbohydrate
supplementation via gels or jelly beans has not been investigated.
The UC Davis researchers will compare the effects of carbohydrate
supplementation via drink, gel and jelly beans versus water only during
an 80-minute period of exercise, followed by a 10K cycling time trial.
This activity is similar to a 30K time trial in cycling or the cycling
portion of a half ironman triathlon, where athletes maintain a hard
pace for the majority of the race, then exert an intense effort at the
end to beat their competitors.
The outcomes that the researchers will be measuring are the
athletes': cycling times during the simulated 10K cycling time trial;
respiratory exchange ratios; blood glucose, lactate and free fatty acid
concentrations; electrolyte balance; and self-reported perceptions of
During the study, the subjects will be required to maintain a daily
training log, in which they will record waking body weight, heart rate
and the type, amount and intensity of exercise. They also will be asked
to rest and be well-hydrated the day before all testing and to follow
an identical diet (their normal pre-race meals) for 24 hours prior to
all test days. In addition, they will be asked to follow the same diet
and exercise regimen they have had for the last month for the duration
of the study.
The Jelly Belly Candy Co., based in Fairfield, Calif., is funding
and supplying the jellybean carbohydrate supplements (sports beans) for
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