such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
shows the taste perceptions associated with each of the five selected
herbal drugs among the three ethnic groups. If considering only those
quotations given by more than 20% of all participants, from the graphs
it is evident that the main cross-cultural differences in taste
perceptions were as follows:
• the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon (in
all three cases, there was only a relatively small sample of the
Kashmiri and a large sample of English informants describing these
herbal drugs as spicy);
• the perception of the bitter taste of ginger (a relatively large majority of Kashmiri participants perceived this herbal drug as bitter);
• the perception of the sweet taste of mint (relatively small proportion of Kashmiri informants);
• the perception of the sour taste of garlic (relatively small sample of the English participants).
Figure 3 and Table 1
give details of medicinal perceptions associated with the selected
herbal drugs across the three ethnic groups. We can clearly see that:
ginger is perceived by many more Kashmiris than by members of either of
the other two groups as being helpful for healing infections and
muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders;
• mint is perceived by more Kashmiris than by members of either of
the other two groups as being helpful for healing digestive and
• garlic is perceived by more Kashmiris than by members of either of
the other two groups as being helpful for healing blood system
• cinnamon is perceived by more Kashmiris than by members of either
of the other two groups as being helpful against infectious diseases.
• overall, the Kashmiris had the highest number of participants,
proportionately, perceiving medicinal uses for each of the five herbs;
the English participants had the lowest perception of medicinal use in
The fact that more Kashmiris have strong perceptions about the
medicinal properties of herbal drugs could perhaps be explained by the
great resilience of their Traditional Medicine (TM).
shows how for the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups a strong link exists
between the frequency of the perception of bitter and spicy tastes of
ginger, garlic, clove, and cinnamon, and the frequency of perceived
medicinal perceptions. Values related to "no taste perceptions" in
are the sum of answers reporting a "bland" perception or no answers at
all – N/A (even it could be that informants did not know how to
describe a particular flavour, we felt that often the N/A response was
associate in the mind of the interviewees to the lack of a specific
shows how there is a far less evident link between the sweet taste and
the medicinal perceptions of mint and cinnamon among the Gujarati
group, whereas the Kashmiri group gave a much more complex response.
lack of a clear link between taste and medicinal perceptions among the
autochthonous English group can possibly be explained by the low degree
of knowledge about the medicinal properties of herbal drugs that the
informants of this group displayed.
shows how bitter, spicy, sour, sweet perceptions relate to age. While
younger interviewees tended more frequently to define the taste of the
selected drugs as "bitter" and "sour", the elderly more frequently
reported them as being "spicy". Interviewees in the middle generations
less frequently cited perceptions of sweetness. Unfortunately, due to
the inconsistency in representation of all categories of age in the
English ethnic group further analysis was considered unreliable.
of gender differences in taste showed that the perception of the
"tastelessness" (including the two categories of bland and not
applicable) of ginger, mint, garlic, clove and cinnamon was
consistently perceived at a proportionately higher rate in females than
in males (Figure 7).
Enter the code exactly as it appears. All letters are case insensitive, there is no zero.