such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
June 2008 — A team of Penn State
scientists has discovered a new ultra-small species of bacteria that
has survived for more than 120,000 years within the ice of a Greenland
glacier at a depth of nearly two miles. The microorganism's ability to
persist in this low-temperature, high-pressure, reduced-oxygen, and
nutrient-poor habitat makes it particularly useful for studying how
life, in general, can survive in a variety of extreme environments on
Earth and possibly elsewhere in the solar system.
The work will be presented by Jennifer Loveland-Curtze, a senior
research associate in the laboratory led by Jean Brenchley, Professor
of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Penn State, at the 108th
American Society for Microbiology General Meeting in Boston,
Massachusetts on 3 June 2008.
This new species is among the ubiquitous, yet mysterious,
ultra-small bacteria, which are so tiny that the cells are able to pass
through microbiological filters. In fact, some species have been found
living in the ultra-purified water used for dialysis. "Ultra-small
cells could be unknown contaminants in media and medical solutions that
are thought to have been sterilized using filters," said
The ultra-small size of the new species could be one explanation for
why it was able to survive for so long in the Greenland glacier. Called
Chryseobacterium greenlandensis, the species is related genetically to
certain bacteria found in fish, marine mud, and the roots of some
plants. The organism is one of only about 10 scientifically described
new species originating from polar ice and glaciers.
To study the bacterium in the laboratory, the research team, which
also includes Senior Research Associate Vanya Miteva, filtered the
cells from melted ice and incubated them in the cold in low-nutrient,
oxygen-free solutions. The scientists then characterized the genetic,
physiological, biochemical, and structural features of the species. The
team hopes that its studies of this species, as well as others living
in the Greenland glacier, will reveal more about how cells survive and
how they may alter their biochemistry and physiology over time.
"Microbes comprise up to one-third or more of the Earth's biomass,
yet fewer than 8,000 microbes have been described out of the
approximately 3,000,000 that are presumed to exist," said
Loveland-Curtze. "The description of this one species is a significant
step in the overall endeavor to discover, cultivate, and use the
special features held by these organisms."
Source : Penn State
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