such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
January 2009 — You may never hear fruit
flies snore, but rest assured that when you're asleep they are too.
According to research published in the January 2009 issue of the
journal Genetics scientists from the University of Missouri-Kansas City
have shown that the circadian rhythms (sleep/wake cycles) of fruit
flies and vertebrates are regulated by some of the same "cellular
machinery" as that of humans.
This study is significant because the sleep-regulating enzyme
analyzed in this research is one of only a few possible drug targets
for circadian problems that can lead to seasonal affective disorder
(SAD), insomnia, and possibly some cancers.
"Modern society functions 24 hours a day and has produced more
circadian problems than our ancestors ever faced," said Jeffrey Price,
Ph.D., the senior scientist involved in the research. "I hope our work
will allow us to better understand and alleviate these problems."
In addition to showing that this drug target has similar circadian
functions in flies and humans, the study confirms that fruit flies are
attractive and viable animal models for circadian research because
their circadian "machinery" is remarkably similar to that in humans and
they can be bred easily and rapidly. Moreover, this study provides
compelling evidence that from an evolutionary point of view, circadian
rhythms have been virtually unchanged since the days when humans and
fruit flies shared a common ancestor.
Price and his colleagues made this discovery using a combination of
biochemical and genetic approaches. For the biochemical approaches,
normal and mutated versions of the fruit fly's sleep-regulating enzyme
(DBT protein kinase) were expressed in insect cells and purified to
determine how well each would work. The genetic approaches involved
altering fruit flies to have the same sleep-altering gene mutations as
vertebrates. The mutant proteins (either the fruit fly or vertebrate
protein) were expressed in the fruit fly's circadian neurons and
produced very similar effects on the fruit fly's circadian period.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more
than 25 percent of the U.S. population report not getting enough sleep
on occasion, while almost 10 percent experience chronic insomnia.
Insufficient sleep is associated with several diseases and conditions,
such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. It
also is responsible for accidents that cause substantial injury and
disability each year.
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