such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Caffeine Intake and the Risk of First-Trimester Spontaneous Abortion
In epidemiologic studies, the range of caffeine ingestion has been narrow.5,6,7,8,10,11,13 Moreover, the assessment of exposure has been suboptimal, with the reporting of caffeine intake occurring long after the period in question or with little regard to changes in ingestion during pregnancy.4,5,6,8,9,10,12,13 Finally, studies of caffeine ingestion and spontaneous abortion have, with one exception,10 not distinguished between chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses.
In Sweden, the consumption of coffee is high, and health care coverage is nationwide; it was therefore possible to investigate whether caffeine is associated with an elevated risk of early spontaneous abortion in the general population. The current study was designed to analyze caffeine intake, smoking status, symptoms of pregnancy, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. In addition, fetal tissue, when available, was collected for chromosomal analysis.
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