such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
One such research program on the mechanism and thermodynamics of molecular machines funded
during the past ~15 years has led to new thinking and analysis through the conception and detailed
formulation of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis and the rotation uncoiling-
tilt (RUT) energy storage mechanism of muscle contraction [1, 2, 10-29]. In this paper,
further subtle but crucial, fundamental details of the molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis and
muscle contraction and their consequences that had remained inaccessible are revealed from the
standpoint of the torsional and RUT mechanisms and unification of the thermodynamic ATP cycle.
Some current theories are shown to be in disagreement with important biochemical and biophysical
(including single molecule) data. Moreover, in a very simple way, it is shown why and how previous
theories violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics and hence require revision. Such
difficulties are not present in the new paradigm, which is now perfectly poised to replace the older
theories. Finally, emphasis is laid on the biological applications of the unified theory in cell life and
death, and how several scientific doors can be opened leading to new vistas and opportunities for
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