such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Flowering plants grow in a wide variety of habitats and environments. They can go from germination of a seed to a mature plant producing new seeds in as little as a month or as long as 150 years. Plants that complete their life cycle in a single season are called annuals; while biennials take two years; and perennials may take several to many years to go from germinated seed to producing new seeds. There are two major classes of flowering plants, monocots and dicots—which have been mentioned previously in the leaves and stems tutorials. In order to keep these two classes separate in our minds, let’s take a moment and outline some of the differences between them.
Dicots account for slightly under three quarters of all flowering plants. Nearly all flowering trees and shrubs are dicots as well as many annual plants. Monocots include bulb producing plants, grasses, orchids and palms. They are primarily herbaceous, meaning no secondary woody growth.
There are all sorts of flower shapes, sizes, colors and arrangements, however there are a few features that are central to all flowers regardless of their form. A flower starts as an embryonic primordium that develops into a bud and is situation as a specialized branch at the end of a stalk called the peduncle. The receptacle is a small pad-like swollen area on the very top of the peduncle. This serves as the platform for the flower parts. Whorls, which are three or more plant parts, are attached to the receptacle. The sepals are the outermost whorl and are usually green. Sometimes they are confused with leaves. They are usually three to five in number and are collectively referred to as the calyx. The second whorl of flower parts are the petals and are collectively referred to as the corolla. The corolla is usually extra-showy in order to attract pollinators. In wind-pollinated plants the corolla may be missing to maximize pollen exposure to the female flower parts. Just as the sepals in the calyx, the petals in the corolla may be fused together or separate individual units. Nestled inside the two outer whorls are the sexual organs of the flower. The stamens entail the male structures: a semi rigid filament with a sac called the anther dangling from the tip. Pollen grains develop in the anthers (a process which we will discuss in further detail in a later tutorial). Most anthers have slits or pores on the sides to accommodate pollen release. The female organs are collectively referred to as the pistil and includes: a ‘landing pad’ at the top called the stigma, a slender stalk like style that leads down to the swollen base called the ovary. The ovary is what will develop/ripen into a fruit.
As you might have guessed, there are names for the different ways that the flower parts are arranged with respect to the ovary. The ovary is said to be superior if the calyx and corolla are attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary. However, if the receptacle grows up and around the ovary and the calyx and corolla are attached above it, then the ovary is said to be inferior.
Inside the ovary is an egg-shaped ovule which is held in place within the ovary by means of a short stalk. The ovule is what develops into a seed. Fruits have seeds.
Some flowers are produced all alone, while others are produced in clusters called inflorescences. An inflorescence is characterized by one peduncle with many little stalks serving individual flowers. The little stalks, in this case, are called pedicels and each stalk services one flower.
A fruit is a mature, or ripened, ovary that usually contains seeds. In contrast, a vegetable can consist of leaves (lettuce, cabbage), leaf petioles (celery), specialized leaves (onions), stems (white potato), stems and roots (beets), flowers and their peduncles (broccoli), flower buds (globe artichokes) and or other parts of the plant. A fruit is by definition just the ovary part of a flower, therefore all fruits come exclusively from flowering plants.
A fruit, ripened ovary, has three major regions that are sometimes difficult to distinguish from each other. The outer layer, sometimes referred to as the skin, is actually called the exocarp. The mesocarp is the fleshy portion which is usually eaten when consuming fruit. The endocarp is the innermost boundary around the seed. Sometimes the endocarp is hard and stony such as a peach pit that surrounds the seed. The endocarp can also be papery as in apples, where it is barely visible in cross section. All three of these regions; the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp, are collectively called the pericarp. The pericarp can be quite thin, as is the case with dry fruits.
Some fruits have flower parts modified or fused to the ovary at maturity. Fruits are classified according to features at maturity: fleshy, dry, split exposing seeds, non-splitting, one ovary or multiple ovaries. We will go through these various classifications and see what examples fall into the various categories.
There are a variety of methods that will get seeds from the ovary to a fertile spot to begin germinating and growing. Not all methods will work for every plant and some plants are very method specific.
The wind can carry light seeds for miles and most seeds and fruits relying on wind dispersal have specialized adaptations. The samaras with their wings and membranes are highly ideal fruits for wind dispersal. Some fruits are too large to be carried in the air, but can be rolled along by the wind. Cottony or woolly hair type adaptations as in the Willow Family, enable better transfer of seeds via the wind. Tumbleweed plants break off and blow along in the wind, all the while dispersing seeds as it bumps along.
There are so many adaptations for the dispersal of seeds by animals that it would take a volume or two to discuss them all. Birds can carry seeds in the mud that they pick up on their feet. Seeds pass through digestive tracts and are deposited randomly by animals. Ants carry collect and carry seeds. Some seeds will not germinate unless they have passed through the acidic environment of a digestive tract. Fur and feathers can trap seeds and some seeds have burrowing type screws or hooks to ensure getting caught on something and carried along.
Some fruits contain trapped air and are thus adapted to dispersal by water. Some pericarps are thick and spongy enough to absorb water slowly and will thus protect the tiny embryo held within. Saltwater dispersed plants generally have these type pericarps and survival requires washing up on a beach somewhere before the saltwater reaches the inside of the seed.
Some fruits mechanically eject fruits, some at a violent velocity. Humans are another method of dispersal whether intentionally or not. Most countries have regulations with regards to bringing fruits and seeds into the country that may harm native species and cultivated crops.
We have been talking about seeds but haven’t really mentioned what a seed is made of and how it becomes a mature plant.
First of all dicot and monocot seeds are different. Recall that a dicot has two seed leaves in the plant embryo, while a monocot has one seed leaf. These seed leaves are called cotyledons. The cotyledons are the food storage organs and will also serve as the first leaves of the growing plant. If you look at a kidney bean—a dicot—you will notice a small white scar on the inner concave edge of the seed, which is called the hilum. The hilum is where the ovule was attached to the ovary wall—analogous to a belly button in a human. The cotyledons are attached to a tiny embryo plant contains the undeveloped leaves and meristematic tissue at one end. The embryo shoot is called the plumule and the cotyledons are attached just beneath the plumule. Above the cotyledons is the stem portion of the axis, and is called the epicotyl. The portion below the cotyledon attachment is called the hypocotyls. The plant embryo is tiny and it will be difficult to see where the stem ends and the root begins. The embryonic root is called the radicle. In some monocots, the radicle and plumule are enclosed for added protection. The tubular sheathing structures are called the coleoptile for the plumule and the coleorhiza for the radicle. At some point the embryonic shoot and root will overtake the protective structures, and the sheathing will cease growing.
Germination is the start of the growing process for a plant embryo. There are a host of internal and external factors that have to be in place in order for germination to occur. Most seeds require some period of dormancy before they will germinate. This can come about by either physiological or mechanical methods or both. Some seeds can break dormancy by scarification which involves artificially cracking the seed coat. In nature, seeds may require a period of freezing and thawing in order to crack the seed coat, or passage through an acidic digestive tract. In most woody plants in temperate regions, a cold period is required before growth will commence. Some plants will absorb vast amounts of water which instigates the activity of enzymes before germination begins. When the seed is water logged oxygen may be reduced and anaerobic respiration may occur until the seed coat cracks and oxygen is admitted to the embryo. In most cases, temperature is vital to germination. Light roles in germination vary depending on the kind of plants involved. Some lettuce seeds, for example, will not germinate in the dark, whereas some seeds such as the California poppy will only germinate in the dark.
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