such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Since the inception, in 1999, of the World Anti Doping Agency –
Agence Mondiale Anti-Dopage (WADA-AMA) and its anti-doping regulation,
athletes in several sports are obliged to keep the authorities informed
of their day-to-day whereabouts so that they can be obliged to urinate
in full view of another person for sample collection, without prior
notice (see the website of WADA-AMA ).
In accordance with the WADA-AMA "athlete whereabouts information
guidelines", the websites of national anti-doping agencies now provide
athletes with forms to fill out with daily details of where the athlete
stays overnight and goes during the day (for example the USA
anti-doping agency website ).
Similar forms are being used in other countries. This practice
seriously impinges on personal privacy and is unacceptable in any other
setting except, perhaps, imprisonment. Yet it is considered ethically
acceptable in elite sport, since it is meant to protect the noble
principles of fair competition, which therefore trump the value of an
individual's private sphere. Indeed, it is commonly argued that
athletes must relinquish some personal privacy, in order for fair
competition to be possible. Our inquiry draws on a developing body of
literature within medical ethics that discusses sports related
enhancement issues [3-6].
We raise questions about the degree of privacy violation that
anti-doping organisations are entitled to request from athletes, on the
basis of this sporting norm. We are doubtful about the rule that fair
competition should trump fundamental liberties in the majority of cases
and are concerned about the escalation of this requirement in
contemporary elite sport. The implicit normative framework of elite
sports is itself a complex ethical and ideological construct, whose
analysis lies beyond the scope of this paper. However, we argue that
this normative framework currently plays out into costly surveillance
and medical testing practices that are increasingly at odds with the
norms of medical ethics and with received notions of personal privacy.
Since the medical profession plays an important role in the war on
doping, we need to analyse this situation in order to assess whether
the physician's role in anti-doping is compatible with prevailing
medical ethics. In this article we will argue that the moral and
ethical foundations of the war on doping are doubtful at best. In
response, we advance both theoretical and pragmatic arguments that
oppose the current trend of intensified and increasingly costly efforts
to limit the use of doping in sports. Specifically, we critically
explore four main ethical justifications for anti-doping: 1) the level
playing field argument, 2) protecting the athlete's health 3) the
concern for professional integrity and 4) the concern about unnecessary
risk taking. In response to these arguments and in view of fundamental
inconsistencies within current anti-doping policy and its limited
effectiveness, we propose a model of medically supervised doping which
takes into account the moral responsibility of medical professionals.
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