such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
U.S. Army psychiatrists may be participating in the interrogation of
detainees, while ignoring recommendations to the contrary from
professional medical associations, according to a Penn State
bioethicist and a Georgetown University law professor.
"The American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the American Medical
Association (AMA) adopted positions in 2006 that basically said
physicians should not be directly involved in any interrogation of any
individual," said Jonathan Marks, associate professor of bioethics,
humanities and law, and acting director of the Rock Ethics Institute.
"According to them this is not what physicians should be doing, whether
the interrogation is aggressive or not, or legal or not."
Yet documents recently provided to Marks and M. Gregg Bloche,
professor of law, Georgetown University Law Center, by the U.S. Army in
response to requests under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) reveal
that the Department of Defense still wants physicians to be involved in
interrogations and continues to resist the positions taken by the
professional medical associations.
In an essay in the Sept. 11 issue of the New England Journal of
Medicine, Marks and Bloche, both co-applicants in the FOIA request,
point out that an October 2006 Army memo, known as the Behavioral
Science Consultation Memo, seeks to undermine the positions of the two
associations and tries to carve out a role for psychiatrists advising
interrogators on individual interrogations.
"The Army is essentially telling physicians that during
interrogations they are not acting as a health care provider but as a
behavioral science advisor," Marks explained. "The memo goes a step
further and suggests that monitoring might actually be helpful in
preventing detainees from getting hurt."
According to Marks, who is also a barrister and an academic member
of Matrix Chambers, London, the Army is trying to provide rationales to
justify the participation of physicians in interrogation. It is seeking
to persuade psychiatrists that there is still a good reason for their
involvement, despite the positions adopted by the professional
Other documents provided in response to the FOIA requests also
indicate that, as of October 2007, at least five psychiatrists had
undergone training as behavioral science consultants after the AMA and
APA adopted their restrictive policies. The Department of Defense memo
expires on October 20, 2008, and while its fate is unclear, the
government should not renew it, say Marks and Bloche, also adjunct
professor, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University,
and nonresident senior fellow, Brookings Institution.
"There are problems with this memo. If they do revise it, they
should embrace the position of the AMA and the APA, instead of trying
to persuade physicians to ignore their policies," added Marks.
The FOIA applications were prepared and submitted with assistance of
David Vladeck, Emily Read and Kathryn Sabbeth at the Institute for
Public Representation at Georgetown University Law Center.
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