such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
To engineer peptides or proteins for improved binding properties,various methods of directed evolution have been developed. Thesemethods include systems such as yeast display (Boder and Wittrup,1997), phage display (Smith, 1985; Bradbury and Marks, 2004;Marks and Bradbury, 2004), Escherichia coli display (Franciscoet al., 1993), baculovirus/insect cell display (Boublik et al.,1995) and ribosome display (Hanes et al., 2000). While purifiedligands have been used most often in these approaches, therehas been considerable effort to develop strategies that involveligands present in whole cell preparations. For example, ina process called biopanning, phage display libraries are eitherincubated with target cells or introduced in vivo into animals(Kupsch et al., 1999; Giordano et al., 2001; Roovers et al.,2001; Trepel et al., 2002). Phage that display a peptide orantibody against cell- or tissue-specific surface moleculesare then isolated, and the process is repeated for further enrichment.
Recently, yeast display has been used as a system to isolatehuman scFv fragments that have specificity for various antigens,with the goal of identifying lead candidates for further directedevolution (Feldhaus et al., 2003). In several cases, yeast displayhas been used to isolate scFv (Boder et al., 2000; Rajpal etal., 2005; Razai et al., 2005) or other cell surface receptors(Buonpane et al., 2005) that exhibit picomolar affinity constantsfor their ligands. Furthermore, yeast display has been usedto engineer T cell receptors (TCRs) (Holler et al., 2000; Kiekeet al., 2001; Holler et al., 2003; Chlewicki et al., 2005),natural killer cell receptors (Dam et al., 2003) and proteinsof the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Brophy et al.,2003; Starwalt et al., 2003; Esteban and Zhao, 2004) with improvementsin stability and/or affinity. Each of these cell surface receptorsis involved in cell-to-cell interactions through its specificbinding to cognate ligands on the surface of an opposing cell.As interactions such as these are typically very low affinity(Maenaka et al., 1999; Davis et al., 2003), there has been considerableinterest in the development of engineering methods for theseclasses of proteins.
TCRs are excellent examples of proteins recognizing cell surfaceligands that in many cases are not amenable to isolation andpurification with retention of native conformation. The TCRrecognizes an antigenic peptide, derived from a foreign protein,presented on the host cell surface bound to a protein of theMHC (Davis et al., 1998; Rudolph and Wilson, 2002). The bindingof a TCR to its cognate peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligand on the targetcell stimulates T cell effector function (e.g. cytokine release,target cell lysis). Like that of an antibody, the antigen bindingsite of a TCR is made up of hypervariable loops called complementaritydetermining regions (CDRs) that make contact with ligand (Garciaet al., 1996). While the expression and purification of solublepMHC ligands has been an area of intense effort, many pMHC proteincomplexes are unstable and/or difficult to manipulate. The variablesuccess with this class of proteins arises from both the diversenature of the antigenic peptides and the extensive polymorphismsin the MHC. We present here a strategy that allows the isolationof high-affinity TCRs against different pMHC ligands, withoutthe need to express and purify soluble forms of pMHC.
In the yeast display system, the TCR has been cloned as a Vß-linker-Vsingle chain (scTCR) fused to the gene for the yeast cell surfaceprotein AGA2 (Kieke et al., 1999). This fusion construct isdisplayed on the surface of yeast, where it is amenable to invitro engineering for higher affinity binding to the pMHC ligand.The 2C TCR, derived from a murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)clone, has been subjected to affinity maturation in this yeastdisplay system (Holler et al., 2000; Holler et al., 2003). ThisTCR recognizes a peptide from a mitochondrial protein, QL9 peptide,presented by the allogeneic MHC molecule Ld (Udaka et al., 1992),as well as the self peptide dEV8 and the foreign peptide SIYRpresented by the syngeneic MHC molecule Kb (Tallquist and Pease,1995; Udaka et al., 1996). Previously, a library of degenerateCDR3 mutants was screened using fluorescent-labeled, solubleforms of the pMHC ligands and fluorescence-activated cell sorting(FACS) (Holler et al., 2000; Holler et al., 2003). While thisapproach was effective for isolating higher affinity TCRs againstthe three different pMHC, many T cell systems do not have availablepurified and well-characterized soluble pMHC that can be usedfor selections by FACS. Furthermore, access to expensive FACSinstrumentation may limit wider application of the approach.
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