such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 June 7; 102(23): 8245–8250.
Climate change has already triggered species distribution shifts in
many parts of the world. Increasing impacts are expected for the
future, yet few studies have aimed for a general understanding of the
regional basis for species vulnerability. We projected late 21st
century distributions for 1,350 European plants species under seven
climate change scenarios. Application of the International Union for
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List criteria to our
projections shows that many European plant species could become
severely threatened. More than half of the species we studied could be
vulnerable or threatened by 2080. Expected species loss and turnover
per pixel proved to be highly variable across scenarios (27-42% and
45-63% respectively, averaged over Europe) and across regions (2.5-86%
and 17-86%, averaged over scenarios). Modeled species loss and turnover
were found to depend strongly on the degree of change in just two
climate variables describing temperature and moisture conditions.
Despite the coarse scale of the analysis, species from mountains could
be seen to be disproportionably sensitive to climate change (≈60%
species loss). The boreal region was projected to lose few species,
although gaining many others from immigration. The greatest changes are
expected in the transition between the Mediterranean and Euro-Siberian
regions. We found that risks of extinction for European plants may be
large, even in moderate scenarios of climate change and despite
Recent rapid climate change is already affecting a wide variety of organisms (1, 2).
Long-term data indicate that the anomalous climate of the past
half-century is already affecting the physiology, distribution, and
phenology of some species in ways that are consistent with theoretical
Although natural climate variation and nonclimatic factors such as land
transformation may well be responsible for some of these trends,
human-induced climate and atmospheric change are the most parsimonious
explanation for many (3, 4).
Several studies have modeled future species distributions at regional (5-8) and local scales (9, 10) and have extrapolated alarming extinction risks for the next century (11). However, few studies have considered the consequences of multiple climate-change scenarios (7, 8), which represent the outcome of different assumptions about the future (12).
Using four representative scenarios and three different climate models
(HadCM3, CGCM2, and CSIRO2), and a range of niche-based modeling
techniques implemented in biomod (13),
we develop predictions of the potential consequences for 1,350 plant
species in Europe. The “future climate” we contrast with today's
climate (averaged from 1961 to 1990) is the projected mean for the
period from 2051 to 2080.
The “bioclimatic envelope” describes
the conditions under which populations of a species persist in the
presence of other biota as well as climatic constraints (6, 14).
Future distributions are projected on the assumption that current
envelopes reflect species' environmental preferences, which will be
retained under climate change. This principle has strong support from
studies demonstrating the evolutionary conservatism of ecological
niches and the phylogenetic inertia of species across time scales (15, 16) and comparative biogeographical studies (17, 18). However, this approach also assumes instantaneous species-range change, it ignores physiological CO2
responses, and it does not capture details of population dynamics or
biotic interactions nor the lags in spatial range shifts associated
with processes of dispersal, establishment, and local extinction. To
assess the sensitivity of projections to the most critical of these
assumptions, we considered two contrasting assumptions about migration
ability (7, 8, 11):
either species are unable to disperse at all on the time scale
considered (no migration), or they have no constraints to dispersal and
establishment (universal migration). The reality for most species is
likely to fall between these extremes, depending on their ability to
migrate across fragmented landscapes (19).
We calculated losses of climatically suitable areas (“species loss”)
assuming no migration and gains (“species gain”) and turnover (“species
turnover”) assuming universal migration.
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