such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Fine mapping of genes has led to the ability to clone domestication-relatedgenes and unravel the molecular basis of domestication-relatedchanges. For example, the two genes that are most importantin relation to spikelet shattering in rice (sh4 and qSH1) havebeen cloned (Konishi et al., 2006; Li et al., 2006; discussedby Sweeney and McCouch, 2007, in this Special Issue). sh4 isthe key shattering gene that distinguishes cultivated from wildrice, while the qSH1 gene controls the difference in the degreeof shattering between some indica and japonica varieties ofrice. sh4 is a transcription regulator and a single amino acidsubstitution results in reduced shattering. For qSH1 a singlenucleotide in the regulatory region of this gene results inthe altered level of seed shattering. sh4 activates the abscissionprocess while qSH1 regulates abscission-layer formation. Sequenceanalysis of sh4 has revealed a single base-pair mutation thatis responsible for non-shattering and this change is the samein both indica and japonica rice varieties (Lin et al., 2007).This result raises doubts about whether Asian rice was domesticatedmore than once, as has been suggested in several recent papers(for a review see Sang and Ge, 2007). In contrast, sequencingand comparing seven loci in wild and landrace barley have providedstrong evidence that barley was domesticated once in the FertileCrescent and a second time between 1500 and 3000 km to the east(Morrell and Clegg, 2007). Analysis of domestication genes acrossdiverse germplasm can resolve questions about where, from whatand how many times a crop was domesticated.
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