such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
PROSSER, WA – Commercial flower and
plant growers know all too well that invasive, ubiquitous weeds cause
trouble by lowering the value and deterring healthy growth of potted
ornamental plants. To control weeds, many commercial nursery owners
resort to the expensive practice of paying workers to hand-weed
containers. Some growers use herbicides, but efficacy of herbicides is
questionable on the wide range of plant species produced in nurseries,
and many herbicides are not registered for use in greenhouses.
"dried distillers grains with solubles", or DDGS. DDGS, a byproduct of
converting corn to fuel ethanol, is typically used as livestock feed.
Rick A. Boydston, Harold P. Collins, and Steve Vaughn, of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, undertook a research study on the use of
DDGS as a weed deterrent on potted ornamentals. The study results,
published in the February 2008 issue of HortScience, evaluated the use of DDGS as a soil amendment to suppress weeds in container-grown ornamentals.
applied DDGS two ways: to the soil surface, and mixed into the potting
media of transplanted ornamentals. Applied to the soil surface after
transplanting, DDGS caused no injury to plants. According to Dr.
Boydston, an agronomist with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS),
"grains applied to the surface at rates that gave good coverage of the
soil (800 and 1600 g/m2) reduced the number of common chickweed and
annual bluegrass. Weed control was not perfect, but could reduce the
amount of hand-weeding typically required."
When mixed into
the potting media, however, dried distillers grains were toxic to
transplanted rose, coreopsis, and phlox plants. Researchers concluded
that DDGS may be useful for reducing weed emergence and growth in
container-grown ornamentals when applied to the soil surface at
transplanting. Dr. Boydston noted that additional research is needed to
identify and confirm the safety (of using DDGS) to other ornamentals
and effectiveness of controlling other types of weeds.
distillers grains are becoming more readily available as ethanol
production in the U.S. increases. The push to produce ethanol, a
cleaner-burning alternative to gasoline, has gained interest as
gasoline prices continue to soar. As production increases, finding new
uses for byproducts like DDGS becomes more critical. Dr. Boydston sees
the results of this and similar ARS studies as a win/win for ethanol
producers and the agriculture industry, noting, "identifying new uses
for byproducts likes distillers grains could increase the profitability
of ethanol production".
American Society for Horticultural Science. Public release date: July 2, 2008.
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