such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Several factors bolster our hypothesis that these tubular structures
are indeed special cellular structures that form when a given cell
adapts to stress rather than formed from either artifacts or from
spontaneous polymerization. These factors include: (1) the
pre-existence of tubular structures in all of our examined tissues; (2)
the ability to observe filamentous structures via SEM, TEM and light
microscopy; the presence of hair-like extensions and small pores or
openings on the fixed straw cells (3) the non-production of straw cells
in cell-free medium with reagents that changed osmotic potential
(salts, PEG, and sugar); (4) the prohibition of spontaneous conversion
from sphere-to-straw cells by free energy; (5) the radioisotope
labeling of growth medium, showing the transformation to be a
metabolically active process; (6) the growth of straw cells into normal
cells capable of dividing; (7) the production of truncated straw cells,
caused by the interference of antibiotics inhibiting protein synthesis
in bacteria; (8) the discovery that tubular walls are made of sulphated
glucose polymers after purifying straw cells in gram quantity, and
subjecting them to FTIR and Mass spectrometry analysis.
We propose to call these tubular structures transformed through
dehydration, "straw cells" because the filaments they produce appear to
act as a conduit for the transport of water much like a drinking straw.
Similar to the fungal spores, the straw cells are produced by a
survival mechanism to protect them from stressful conditions and then
revert to a normal morphology when the environment becomes favorable.
Understanding the function of these straw cells and developing methods
to interrupt their production is may elucidate the cause and effect of
the basic pathogenesis in degenerative diseases including malignant
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