such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Though the DNA sequence is invariant across the tissues, yet
the epigenetic microenvironment dictates tissue-specific variation. The mammoth Human Genome Project unraveled
the nucleotide sequences for nearly 40,000 genes. Their differential and possibly preferential expression
is invariably under the guidance and involvement of epigenetic factors. The
degree of evaluation of these epigenetic factors, their quantification and
relations with the corresponding regions of genome need to be understood for
the successful prognostic measures in the prevention of human diseases
associated with aging, inborn errors and cellular differentiation (Table.3). Therefore, attempts are under progress since
two years for an international consensus in the epigenetic community to establish
an organized Human Epigenome Project, which may perhaps focus on identification,
cataloguing and interpreting genome wide methylation patterns - which are
intricately involved in diverse biological processes and etiology of many
diseases. The cataloguing of such
methylation variable positions will invariably improve our understanding of
epigenome biology and our ability to diagnose diseases (34).
A beginning is made to set up Human Epigenome Consortium by
the collaboration of Sanger Centre, Epigenomics AG and the Centre National de
Genotypage. Adopting automated
bisulphite DNA sequencing technique, they are advancing to unfold 150 loci in
the MHC region on chromosome 6. One of
the pioneers in the field viz. Thomas Jenuwein, Vienna,
is heading European Epigenome Network.
Another group viz., High throughput Epigenetic Regulatory Organisation
in Chromatin (HEROIC) led by Henk Stunnenberg is aiming at developing tools for
the analysis of complex chromatin-DNA interaction. One of the private/public partnerships being
funded by the German government is running under the leadership of Joerg
Hoheisel. Recently, the American Association for Cancer Research Sponsored a
Workshop (35) to formulate a proposal for a Human Epigenome Project with a working
group aiming at the evaluation of epigenetic factors concerned with the tissues
of pathological states.
and Feinberg (36) cited an example that was reported by Fraga et al., (37)
illustrating the prevalence of epigenetic disparities between monozygotic twins
with a consequent upsurge during ageing.
This is a remarkable example displaying phenotypic discordance for
complex diseases such as psychiatric disorders and thus highlighting the
contribution of individual’s epigenotype to the phenotypic manifestation of the
inherited genotype. The public data base
for epigenomics is available at http://WWW.epigenome.org.
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