such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
Two types of "simple eyes" can be found in the class Insecta: dorsal Ocelli and lateral Ocelli (=stemmata). Although both types of Ocelli are similar in structure, they are believed to have separate phylogenetic and embryological origins.
Dorsal Ocelli are commonly found in adults and in the immature stages (nymphs) of many hemimetabolous species. They are not independent visual organs and never occur in species that lack compound eyes. Whenever present, dorsal Ocelli appear as two or three small, convex swellings on the dorsal or facial regions of the head. They differ from compound eyes in having only a single corneal lens covering an array of several dozen rhabdom-like sensory rods. These simple eyes do not form an image or perceive objects in the environment, but they are sensitive to a wide range of wavelengths, react to the polarization of light, and respond quickly to changes in light intensity. No exact function has been clearly established, but many physiologists believe they act as an "iris mechanism" -- adjusting the sensitivity of the compound eyes to different levels of light intensity.
From these considerations of structure it has been concluded that the Ocelli are adapted to the immediate perception of small changes in light intensity. But although they must be stimulated by light the insect often shows no outward response to such stimulation. Ants with their Ocelli alone uncovered behave as though blind; bees and Drosophila after blackening the compound eyes no longer show any reactions to light. In cicada Cryptotympana, on the other hand, the Ocelli as well as the compound eyes play an obvious part in light perception, and asymmetrical covering of the Ocelli leads to circus flight. In some insects, although the Ocelli by themselves are incapable of evoking reflex movements in response to flight. Drosophila and Apis the insect with Ocelli are uncovered responds more rapidly to change in the light intensity.
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