such as "Introduction", "Conclusion"..etc
In recent years, our physiopathological and biochemical knowledge concerning pain has increased considerably, without however being accompanied by a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of pain management therapies in the case of severe pain such as that of pancreatic cancer, or of visceral pain in general. Perhaps the most important experience emerging from the research leading up to the conception of scrambler therapy is the possibility of obtaining truly significant results through a change in approach and perspective in analyzing a problem and that medical science can benefit extensively from the advancement in knowledge which can lead to clinical applications when analytical multidisciplinary approaches are followed. It should be considered that several ideas emerging from the study of scrambler therapy can be usefully applied in other fields. It must be emphasized that the decision not to interrupt the perception of pain by blocking the pathways but rather to control its properties by manipulating a metavariable system, currently seems to be a solution that is as innovative as it is successful and which perhaps represents the beginning of a new era in previously untreatable pain therapy.
As far as the gastric cancer case is concerned, where a marked improvement of pain was achieved with a drastic but not a complete reduction of pharmacological therapy (from ketorolac 90 mg/day plus tramadol 400 mg/day, to only ketorolac 30 mg/day), we suspect that this was due to an incomplete involvement of pain pathways which must have been only partially affected by surface receptors. This is in agreement with the observation that, in the last two sessions, the duration of analgesia was prolonged throughout 24 h.
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