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Translation

Definition

noun

A step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA.


Supplement

Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located. It consists of four phases:
(1) activation – the correct amino acid is covalently bonded to the correct tRNA – a step required for translation to proceed
(2) initiation - the small subunit of the ribosome binds to 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF)
(3) elongation – the next aminoacyl-tRNA in line binds to the ribosome along with GTP and an elongation factor.
(4) termination - the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA)


Word origin: L trānslātiōn- (s. of trānslātiō) a transferring, equiv. to trānslāt(us) + -iōn.

Related forms: translational (adjective), translationally (adverb).
Related phrases: nick translation.

See also: protein synthesis.


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Re: translation from DNA

That's a reasonable idea. I can imagine a ribosome directly binding to DNA to translate the DNA codons directly into protein. We can't really tell why that didn't happen, as much of the early development of life occurred far in the past and left no evidence of the steps in the process; we must infer...

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by jonmoulton
Mon Sep 29, 2014 3:03 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: translation from DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 212

translation from DNA

why come proteins need RNA for translation. why cant they translate from DNA itself... All it needs is triplet of codons which can be provided by DNA too??

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by jannat
Sun Sep 28, 2014 6:27 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: translation from DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 212

Re: Any ideas for vaccine development or anti-viral drugs???

... the ability to inhibit EBOV infection in cell culture and in a mouse model of lethal EBOV infection. A 22-mer P-PMO designed to base pair with the translation start site region of EBOV VP35 positive-sense RNA generated sequence-specific and time- and dose-dependent inhibition of EBOV amplification ...

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by jonmoulton
Mon Sep 15, 2014 3:04 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Any ideas for vaccine development or anti-viral drugs???
Replies: 2
Views: 476

ICG-9 (International Conference on Genomics)

... region with a focus on promoting academic communication, development of new businesses, and industrialization of global biotechnology research and translation. In 2013, the 2nd SIBIFE brought together more than 1,200 policy makers, corporate leaders, industry heavyweights, biotech investors and ...

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by BessChan
Wed Jul 30, 2014 2:53 am
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: ICG-9 (International Conference on Genomics)
Replies: 0
Views: 562

Gene knockdowns in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis

... often does not provide significant knockdown of later-acting genes. To overcome this limitation, we designed an Nv eve morpholino overlapping the translation start site, as well as one directed at the exon-intron junction in the homeobox. These two independent morpholinos are expected to disrupt ...

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by jonmoulton
Fri Mar 07, 2014 5:57 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Gene knockdowns in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis
Replies: 0
Views: 1160
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