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Spruces

spruce

1. (Science: botany) Any coniferous tree of the genus picea, as the Norway spruce (P. Excelsa), and the white and black spruces of America (P. Alba and P. Nigra), besides several others in the far Northwest. See Picea.

2. The wood or timber of the spruce tree.

3. Prussia leather; pruce. Spruce, a sort of leather corruptly so called for Prussia leather. (E.

(Science: botany) phillips) Douglas spruce, a handsome American grouse (Dendragapus Canadensis) found in canada and the northern united states.

Synonym: canada grouse.

Origin: OE. Spruce or Pruse, Prussia, Prussian. So named because it was first known as a native of Prussia, or because its sprouts were used for making, spruce beer. Cf. Spruce beer, below, Spruce.


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Common Organisms as Biomarkers and Bioindicators

... the last few decades of the century. Usnea ("old man's beard") are a type of lichen that grow on the branches of trees (especially spruces) and are very dsitinctive in old forests. These lichens also often disappear close to industrial areas and factories, and slowly re-appear if ...

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by biohazard
Mon May 31, 2010 6:43 am
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Common Organisms as Biomarkers and Bioindicators
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