a major component of the tough outer (exine) walls of spores and pollen grains.

(Science: biopolymer) a mixture of biopolymers, containing mainly long chain fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, phenolics and traces of carotenoids.

heteropolymer of p-Coumaric acid, longchain aliphatic hydroxy-, mono- and dicarbonic acids, found in the exine of the pollen wall, in the walls of the spores of ferns and mosses and in the walls of oospores of Charophyta. Extremely resistant to chemical or enzymic degradation.

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