procedure much used in electron microscopy, in which a thin layer of material, usually heavy metal or carbon, is deposited onto a surface from one side, in such a way as to cast shadows. Deposition is usually done by vapourising the metal on an electrode under vacuum.
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... determined because the pods were viewed against the incoming light. The center pea appeared to be larger than all other seeds in all cases. The shadowing effect caused by the incoming light gave the students this information. Once full maturity seemed to be achieved and some of the leaves began ...
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