Dictionary » S » Sex chromosome

Sex chromosome


noun, plural: sex chromosomes

A type of chromosome in the genome that is involved in the determination of the sex as well as the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. It occurs in pairs in somatic cells while singly in sex cells (gametes).


A somatic cell contains a genome comprised of paired chromosomes: the autosomes and sex chromosomes. In humans, there are two forms of sex chromosomes: the X chromosome and Y chromosome. A pair of X and Y results in a male while a combination of X and X results in a female. This XX/XY sex-determination system is one of the most familiar sex-determination systems and is applicable in human beings and most other mammals. In this system, the sex of an organism is determined by the sex chromosomes since these chromosomes bear the genes that control the development of reproductive organs and other sexual characteristics of an organism.


Compare: autosome

See also: X-chromosome, Y-chromosome

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Re: some food for thoughts

... maths. It's just using equations as bad analogies. Note that the Y chromosome is structurally pretty much the X chromosome with parts removed. ... gene does act as a switch for many other genes use in development of sex organs. I tend to concur with Darby; this notion doesn't make much sense ...

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by ChrisHoStuart
Mon Oct 14, 2013 1:07 am
Forum: Evolution
Topic: Gender divison in two opposites is greatest mistake of manki
Replies: 25
Views: 17764

Re: What causes dominance between alleles?

... gene, one copy on a maternal and one on the corresponding paternal chromosome (and excluding the sex chromosomes), then usually both copies are making transcripts. Maternal - good protein ...

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by jonmoulton
Fri Aug 09, 2013 7:45 pm
Forum: Genetics
Topic: What causes dominance between alleles?
Replies: 2
Views: 2998

Re: Knockout mice

... can be complicated by the biology, especially if the gene is on the X sex chromosome (where chromosome silencing can complicate expression). "What confuses me is ...

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by jonmoulton
Wed Feb 06, 2013 3:51 pm
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Knockout mice
Replies: 5
Views: 4285

Re: Muscular dystrophy inheritance question

This might get you partway there. Dystrophin is a sex-linked disease carried on the X (sex) chromosome. It behaves as a recessive in females (who have two alleles for dystrophin) and as a dominant ...

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by jonmoulton
Tue Jan 08, 2013 8:05 pm
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Muscular dystrophy inheritance question
Replies: 7
Views: 5487

Re: aneuploidy and polyploidy

... there are different types (monosomy and trisomy) and it can occur in sex chromosomes or autosomes...AND there are different causes (non-disjunction, translocation errors, ...

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by carmodyf
Thu Oct 11, 2012 4:36 am
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: aneuploidy and polyploidy
Replies: 2
Views: 4347
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