noun, plural: chemokine receptors
Chemokine receptors are cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines. The interaction between the chemokines and chemokine receptors on the cell mediates the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules.
In mammals, there have been twenty chemokine receptors described. Accordingly, they belong to the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors since they have a 7-transmembrane structure and they couple to G-protein for intracellular signal transduction. When activated after interacting with a particular chemokine ligand, the chemokine receptors trigger calcium ion flux within the cell. This in turn triggers a series of events that eventuate to a cell response, e.g. chemotaxis. Chemotaxis is a response of motile cells or organisms in which the direction of movement is affected by the gradient of a diffusible substance.
Chemokine receptors may be classified according to the four distinct subfamilies of chemokines they interact with. The four groups of chemokine receptors are (1) CXC chemokine receptors (respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family), (2) CC chemokine receptors (respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family), (3) CX3C chemokine receptors (responds to the chemokine CX3CL1) and (4) XC chemokine receptors (responds to chemokines, XCL1 and XCL2).