noun, plural: syntheses
Protein synthesis is a process of creating protein molecules. In biological systems, it involves amino acid synthesis, transcription, and translation. In amino acid synthesis, there is a set of biochemical processes that produce amino acids from carbon sources like glucose. Not all amino acids are produced by the body; other amino acids are obtained from diet. Within the cells, proteins are generated involving transcription and translation processes.
Translation is the process in which amino acids are linked together in a specific order according to the rules specified by the genetic code. It occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located. It consists of four phases: (1) activation (the amino acid is covalently bonded to the tRNA), (2) initiation (the small subunit of the ribosome binds to 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors), (3) elongation (the next aminoacyl-tRNA in line binds to the ribosome along with GTP and an elongation factor), and (4) termination (the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon).
Following protein synthesis are events, e.g. proteolysis, post-translational modification, and protein folding.
Word origin: protein: from Late Greek prōteios, of the first quality, from Greek prōtos, first; synthesis: Latin, collection, from Greek sunthesis, from suntithenai, to put together