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Protein

Definition

noun, plural: proteins

(biochemistry)

A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen. Other components include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus.


Supplement

A protein is a linear polymer built from about 20 different amino acids. The type and the sequence of amino acids in a protein are specified by the DNA in the cell that produces them. This sequence of amino acids is essential since it determines the overall structure and function of a protein.

A protein has several functions. It may serve as a structural material (e.g. keratin), as enzymes, as transporters (e.g. hemoglobin), as antibodies, or as regulators of gene expression.

A protein may be classified based on its form and main functions: it can be a globular protein like most enzymes, fibrous protein which are for structural role; and membrane proteins that serve as receptors or channels for polar or charged molecule to pass through the cell membrane.


Word origin: French protéine, from Late Greek prōteios, of the first quality, from Greek prōtos, first

Related phrases: housekeeping protein, protein synthesis, carrier protein, membrane protein, plasma protein, integral membrane protein, coat protein, heat-shock protein, simple protein.

See also: amino acid, enzyme.


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Results from our forum


translation from DNA

... on RNA level), but further there is amplification of the signal (there can be thousands copies of each mRNA, each giving rise to hundreds of protein molecules), also, during replication of DNA the protein synthesis would have to be shut down and there could be other reasons. But as said, ...

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by JackBean
Tue Sep 30, 2014 8:16 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: translation from DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 212

Gene Upregulation/Increased Expression in HMG-CoA Reductase

... tried to differentiate the two and left me pretty confused. From my understanding, increased gene expression will result in an increase in the protein product that a gene is coding for. Meaning that if you increased expression of a gene that codes for an enzyme, it would result in upregulation ...

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by Upperninety8
Tue Sep 30, 2014 3:21 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Gene Upregulation/Increased Expression in HMG-CoA Reductase
Replies: 0
Views: 45

Re: translation from DNA

That's a reasonable idea. I can imagine a ribosome directly binding to DNA to translate the DNA codons directly into protein. We can't really tell why that didn't happen, as much of the early development of life occurred far in the past and left no evidence of the steps in the process; ...

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by jonmoulton
Mon Sep 29, 2014 3:03 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: translation from DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 212

Re: Any ideas for vaccine development or anti-viral drugs???

... Silvestri LS, Ruthel G, Kallstrom G, Warfield KL, Swenson DL, Nelle T, Iversen PL, Bavari S, Aman MJ. Involvement of Vacuolar Protein Sorting Pathway in Ebola Virus Release Independent of TSG101 Interaction. J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 15;196 Suppl 2:S264-70. Budding of Ebola virus ...

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by jonmoulton
Mon Sep 15, 2014 3:04 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Any ideas for vaccine development or anti-viral drugs???
Replies: 2
Views: 476

Recessive and dominant genetics - Pitx1 case study

... this is what my text says on the basic diagram "This Scientists generated mouse embryos in which the Pitx1 gene was mutated, making the Pitx1 protein non-functional from the start of mouse development. The images of the Pitx1 “knockout” mouse shown below on the right reveal striking differences ...

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by scienceguy914
Mon Sep 08, 2014 1:44 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Recessive and dominant genetics - Pitx1 case study
Replies: 0
Views: 424
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