Dictionary » P » Phospholipase



(Science: enzyme) That hydrolyse ester bonds in phospholipids. They comprise two types: aliphatic esterases (phospholipase A1, A2 and B) that release fatty acids and phosphodiesterases (types C and D) that release diacyl glycerol or phosphatidic acid respectively.

type A2 is widely distributed in venoms and digestive secretions. Types A1, A2 and C the latter specific for phosphatidyl inositol) are present in all mammalian tissues. Type C is also found as a highly toxic secretion product of pathogenic bacteria. Type B attacks monoacyl phospholipids and is poorly characterised. Type D is largely of plant origin. PLA2 Type II (a secreted enzyme, but not the same as the Type I digestive pancreatic enzyme) is probably very important in inflammation because its action can release arachidonic acid, the starting point for eicosanoid synthesis.

phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate specific phospholipase C is important in generating diacyl glycerol and inositol trisphosphate, both second messengers.

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Re: molecular mechanism of inflammation

... or other stimuli. (The stimulus may even be an eicosanoid from a neighboring cell; the pathways are complex.) This triggers the release of a phospholipase at the cell membrane. The phospholipase travels to the nuclear membrane. There, the phospholipase catalyzes ester hydrolysis of phospholipid ...

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by jwalin
Mon Jan 18, 2010 9:56 am
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: molecular mechanism of inflammation
Replies: 9
Views: 6786

Re: lysosome

... "glycocalix" proteins but almost no references on a Pubmed search of lysosome + glycocalix. The lysosomes do indeed contain enzymes with phospholipase activity capable of damaging membranes, but these might not have access to the membranes without protein interactions. It seems that bits ...

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by hkornfeld
Thu Sep 17, 2009 10:19 pm
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: lysosome
Replies: 11
Views: 15388

cAMP as second messenger in GPCR signal transduction

... we have. other examples include cGMP and Calcium ions. And no, GPCRs do relay the message solely through cAMP, they can, as I remember, activate phospholipase C and guanynyl cyclase as well.

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by MrMistery
Sun Feb 15, 2009 4:13 pm
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: cAMP as second messenger in GPCR signal transduction
Replies: 3
Views: 4965

yes they are

... same gland as the venom gland of the gila monster. The venom produced by a varanid lizard also shares many toxins with the gila monster, such as phospholipase A2 toxins that block the aggregation of platelets, an essential aspect of being able to form a blood clot to stop bleeding. This works ...

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by venomdoc
Sat Oct 14, 2006 1:44 pm
Forum: Zoology Discussion
Topic: Are monitors venomous?
Replies: 9
Views: 6277

The Fiber Disease

... The Effects of Mastoparan on the Carrot Cell Plasma Membrane Polyphosphoinositide Phospholipase C http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/107/3/845 Mastoparan promotes exocytosis and increases intracellular cyclic AMP in ...

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by London
Tue Aug 29, 2006 7:40 pm
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: The Fiber Disease
Replies: 7403
Views: 5562699
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