Dictionary » P » Philosophy



Origin: OE. Philosophie, F. Philosophie, L. Philosophia, from Gr. See Philosopher.

1. Literally, the love of, including the search after, wisdom; in actual usage, the knowledge of phenomena as explained by, and resolved into, causes and reasons, powers and laws.

When applied to any particular department of knowledge, philosophy denotes the general laws or principles under which all the subordinate phenomena or facts relating to that subject are comprehended. Thus philosophy, when applied to god and the divine government, is called theology; when applied to material objects, it is called physics; when it treats of man, it is called anthropology and psychology, with which are connected logic and ethics; when it treats of the necessary conceptions and relations by which philosophy is possible, it is called metaphysics.

Philosophy has been defined: tionscience of things divine and human, and the causes in which they are contained; the science of effects by their causes; the science of sufficient reasons; the science of things possible, inasmuch as they are possible; the science of things evidently deduced from first principles; the science of truths sensible and abstract; the application of reason to its legitimate objects; the science of the relations of all knowledge to the necessary ends of human reason; the science of the original form of the ego, or mental d7d

self; the science of science; the science of the absolute; the scienceof the absolute indifference of the ideal and real.

2. A particular philosophical system or theory; the hypothesis by which particular phenomena are explained. [Books] of aristotle and his philosophie. (Chaucer) We shall in vain interpret their words by the notions of our philosophy and the doctrines in our school. (locke)

3. Practical wisdom; calmness of temper and judgment; equanimity; fortitude; stoicism; as, to meet misfortune with philosophy. Then had he spent all his philosophy. (Chaucer)

4. Reasoning; argumentation. Of good and evil much they argued then, . . . Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy. (milton)

5. The course of sciences read in the schools.

6. A treatise on philosophy. Philosophy of the academy, that of Plato, who taught his disciples in a grove in Athens called the Academy. Philosophy of the garden, that of Epicurus, who taught in a garden in Athens. Philosophy of the Lyceum, that of aristotle, the founder of the peripatetic school, who delivered his lectures in the Lyceum at Athens. Philosophy of the porch, that of Zeno and the stoics; so called because Zeno of Citium and his successors taught in the porch of the Poicile, a great hall in Athens.

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Neo-Orthogenesis and Neo-Darwinian evolution

... to us at this stage of our evolution (and may always be unknown to us). This is a completely naturalistic (and no doubt contentious) pantheistic philosophy. I completely reject the classical non-Darwinian, unilinear, orthogenetic hypothesis that is often associated with Lamarckism and which has ...

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by valetudo
Tue Mar 11, 2014 11:12 am
Forum: Evolution
Topic: Neo-Orthogenesis and Neo-Darwinian evolution
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Views: 62

Re: experiences occur separately?

... are the current states of those regions. I just didn't want to go into that too much since I don't really know the science or philosophy. In this model, "cognition" would only come to awareness through the "experience" of memories regarding our previous ...

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by wildfunguy
Tue Oct 01, 2013 12:50 am
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: experiences occur separately?
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Views: 664

Comparative animal physiology

... comparative aspects of animal physiology. According to Prosser, "Comparative Physiology is not so much a defined discipline as a viewpoint, a philosophy.

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by MarkHolland
Sat Mar 30, 2013 3:27 pm
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Topic: Comparative animal physiology
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... to our (human species) genetic pool. Ok, I may have misunderstood Kajsateresa's idea of "endangered" species, but I stick to the "philosophy". With regard to the polio virus, if you are correct and we don't fully understand it yet, then by my own reasoning or philosophy, we ...

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by Rap
Sun Sep 16, 2012 1:24 am
Forum: Evolution
Topic: evolution and endangered species
Replies: 11
Views: 5318

Re: question for evolutionary biologist.

... So please, show how that can happen and we are in a serious scientific discussion. If you can't then your view is based, not on science but on a philosophy. What I say however is; don't conflate belief with science, because if you do then you are obliged to prove your belief scientifically. Everyone ...

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by scottie
Tue Aug 28, 2012 11:23 am
Forum: Evolution
Topic: question for evolutionary biologist.
Replies: 26
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