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Paper

paper

1. A substance in the form of thin sheets or leaves intended to be written or printed on, or to be used in wrapping. It is made of rags, straw, bark, wood, or other fibrous material, which is first reduced to pulp, then molded, pressed, and dried.

2. A sheet, leaf, or piece of such substance.

3. A printed or written instrument; a document, essay, or the like; a writing; as, a paper read before a scientific society. They brought a paper to me to be signed. (Dryden)

4. A printed sheet appearing periodically; a newspaper; a journal; as, a daily paper.

5. Negotiable evidences of indebtedness; notes; bills of exchange, and the like; as, the bank holds a large amount of his paper.

6. Decorated hangings or coverings for walls, made of paper. See Paper hangings, below.

7. A paper containing (usually) a definite quantity; as, a paper of pins, tacks, opium, etc.

8. A medicinal preparation spread upon paper, intended for external application; as, cantharides paper.

Paper is manufactured in sheets, the trade names of which, together with the regular sizes in inches, are shown in the following table. But paper makers vary the size somewhat.

In the manufacture of books, etc, a sheet, of whatever size originally, is termed, when folded once, a folio; folded twice, a quarto, or 4to; three times, an octavo, or 8vo; four times, a sextodecimo, or 16mo; five times, a 32mo; three time ed5 s, with an offcut folded twice and set in, a duodecimo, or 12mo; four times, with an offcut folded three times and set in, a 24mo.

Paper is often used adjectively or in combination, having commonly an obvious signification; as, paper cutter or paper-cutter; paper knife, paper-knife, or paperknife; paper maker, paper-maker, or papermaker; paper mill or paper-mill; paper weight, paper-weight, or paperweight, etc. Business paper, checks, notes, drafts, etc, given in payment of actual indebtedness; opposed to accommodation paper. Fly paper, paper covered with a sticky preparation, used for catching flies. Laid paper. See Laid.

(Science: botany) Paper birch, any wasp which makes a nest of paperlike material, as the yellow jacket. Paper weight, any object used as a weight to prevent loose papers from being displaced by wind, or otherwise. Parchment paper. See papyrine. Tissue paper, thin, gauzelike paper, such as is used to protect engravings in books. Wall paper. Same as Paper hangings, above. Waste paper, paper thrown aside as worthless or useless, except for uses of little account. Wove paper, a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked.

Origin: F. Papier, fr. L. Papyrus papyrus, from which the Egyptians made a kind of paper, Gr. Cf. Papyrus.


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Re: Citing articles and copyright

... because it cuts down on error in verifying who credit is due to. You should link to the source that you get the resource from. So if you find the paper through pubmed but you view and download the PDF form the Journal of Lipid Research (JLR), you must use the JLR link.

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by daniel.kurz
Wed Aug 13, 2014 4:58 am
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Citing articles and copyright
Replies: 2
Views: 502

Re: pGP704

I recommend you look up papers where pGP704 was used in the methods and then the paper should provide their source. Call the source and ask. I imagine the Harvard or Yale microbial library has the plasmid you are looking for.

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by daniel.kurz
Wed Aug 13, 2014 4:53 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: pGP704
Replies: 2
Views: 472

Re: What does "deficient trafficking" means

You can replace: "deficient trafficking to the..." with: "not enough transport to the...". Without reading the paper I can't be sure of this. Based on your post, it sounds like the protein if interest is usually sent to the lysosome, but because it is misfolded it is ...

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by jonmoulton
Wed Jul 02, 2014 2:38 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: What does "deficient trafficking" means
Replies: 1
Views: 596

What does "deficient trafficking" means

I was reading a paper on disease mechanism where misfolding of a particular protein leads to its degradation by ubiquitin proteasome pathway and deficient trafficking to the lysosome. What does deficient trafficking means and overall ...

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by KSJ
Wed Jul 02, 2014 3:10 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: What does "deficient trafficking" means
Replies: 1
Views: 596

Re: How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?

Regarding the regulation of replication of mitochondria, this paper discusses an influence of tumor necrosis factor alpha on mitochondrial replication while exploring the effect of adenosine on that regulatory system. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0098459 ...

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by jonmoulton
Wed Jun 11, 2014 2:08 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?
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