Dictionary » N » Nucleotide

Nucleotide

Definition

noun, plural: nucleotides

The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It is an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.


Supplement

DNA molecule consists of nucleotides in which the sugar component is deoxyribose whereas the RNA molecule has nucleotides in which the sugar is a ribose. The most common nucleotides are divided into purines and pyrimidines based on the structure of the nitrogenous base. In DNA, the purine bases include adenine and guanine while the pyrimidine bases are thymine and cytosine. RNA includes adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil in stead of thymine (thymine is produced by adding a methyl to uracil).

Aside from serving as precursors of nucleic acids, nucleotides also serve as important cofactors in cellular signaling and metabolism. These cofactors include CoA, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).


Word origin: nucleo- from nucleus + -ide (chemical suffix).

Related terms: nucleotide pyrophosphate transferase.

Compare: nucleoside.
See also: nucleic acid.


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Re: microsatellite instability

OK, another question: I can see how insertion/deletion can be detected by fragment analysis, but incorporation of a wrong nucleotide wouldn't cause change in the length of amplicon, so can that also be detected by fragment analysis?

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by kk
Thu Jul 10, 2014 2:45 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: microsatellite instability
Replies: 3
Views: 2341

SNV vs point mutation?

... from a point mutation. I seemed to think that an SNV and a point mutation were the same thing. So, what is the difference between a "single nucleotide variant" (SNV) and a point mutation? I can't seem to get it.

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by jomjamson
Sat Jan 11, 2014 5:51 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: SNV vs point mutation?
Replies: 1
Views: 942

Re: Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?

It would be interesting to calculate the energy released if all the body's nucleotide triphosphates (e.g. ATP) were to simultaneously hydrolyze. I see no mechanism for that happening, but that should represent a pretty good stock of potential energy.

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by jonmoulton
Tue Dec 03, 2013 4:07 pm
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?
Replies: 10
Views: 3846

Re: Virology - Calculations

... kb is 1184000 bases times the 660 Da per base pair gives 7.8144x10^8Daltons... Not sure where to go to further this. Somehow, I think a codon of 3 nucleotides (990 Da) factors in to this?? ahh... no! So, the size of genome is 1184 kbp (whether you express it in kbp, Mbp or bp really doesn't matter, ...

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by JackBean
Tue Sep 17, 2013 3:58 pm
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Virology - Calculations
Replies: 1
Views: 1615

Virology - Calculations

... kb is 1184000 bases times the 660 Da per base pair gives 7.8144x10^8Daltons... Not sure where to go to further this. Somehow, I think a codon of 3 nucleotides (990 Da) factors in to this?? **What is the molecular weight of single-stranded RNA needed to code for a capsid protein of 60 kilodaltons ...

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by mkay28
Mon Sep 16, 2013 1:05 am
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Virology - Calculations
Replies: 1
Views: 1615
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