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Nuclease

Definition

noun, plural: nucleases

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleic acids to oligonucleotides or mononucleotides


Supplement

Different enzymes are used for manipulating DNA. One of them is a group of enzymes that promotes the hydrolysis of nucleic acids, such as DNA; others are DNA polymerases, kinases, alkaline phosphatases, and topoisomerases.

Nucleases are enzymes that are capable of catalyzing hydrolysis of nucleic acids by cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids.

There are two major types of nucleases: (1) exonucleases and (2) endonucleases. Exonucleases are capable of removing nucleotides one at a time from a DNA molecule whereas endonucleases work by cleaving the phosphodiester bonds within DNA molecule.1 Examples of nucleases are Bal 31, which is a double-stranded exonuclease commonly used for producing deletion sets, exonuclease I and exonuclease III for 3'-5' exonuclease activity, Dnase I, which is an endonuclease used for splitting single-stranded and double-stranded DNA molecules, and nuclease S1 capable of degrading both single-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. (There are however certain nucleases that act as both an endonuclease and an exonuclease.)


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Related term(s):

Reference(s):
1"Week 4: Enzymes for manipulating DNA". [web.pdx.edu/~justc/courses/RecombDNA/Week4.ppt link]


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DNA

I think this is a case where winding the DNA onto histones protects it from the nuclease, so the DNA is cut only in regions between the histones. If the same length of DNA is wound around each histone and every DNA segment between histones gets cut, the fragments ...

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by jonmoulton
Thu Feb 14, 2013 4:32 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: DNA
Replies: 8
Views: 6531

DNA

Can you help me understand what exactly is nucleosome periodicity? We are studying it by adding micrococcal nuclease within the nucleus and studying it by SDS-PAGE.The results we had, showed several bands around 6 (nucleosomes that were cut by the nuclease). I do not really know ...

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by simina
Thu Feb 14, 2013 1:41 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: DNA
Replies: 8
Views: 6531

Chromatin experiment

... weight bands? 1. Increase the EDTA concentration 2. Expose the cells to the detergent for longer time 3. Increase the concentration of the nuclease 4. Decrease the concentration of the nuclease 5. Increase the incubation time with the nuclease. 6. Increase the number of cells used I've ...

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by 2468
Thu Nov 08, 2012 7:48 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Chromatin experiment
Replies: 10
Views: 3459

Re:

... strong band of low molecular weight)= 1. In this lane the DNA has been almost completely digested because the nucleosome had been extracted before nuclease treatment Lane 1 (smear starting at the well and ending in the middle of the gel means undigested DNA)= 4. High molecular weight bands in this ...

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by 2468
Sat Nov 03, 2012 4:32 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Chromatin experiment
Replies: 10
Views: 3459

Chromatin experiment

... strong band of low molecular weight)= 1. In this lane the DNA has been almost completely digested because the nucleosome had been extracted before nuclease treatment Lane 1 (smear starting at the well and ending in the middle of the gel means undigested DNA)= 4. High molecular weight bands in this ...

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by Cat
Sat Nov 03, 2012 3:46 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Chromatin experiment
Replies: 10
Views: 3459
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